Open Geospatial Consortium

External identifier of this OGC® document: http://www.opengis.net/doc/IS/geopackage/1.2
URL for this OGC® document: http://www.geopackage.org/spec
Internal reference number of this OGC® document: OGC 12-128r13
Version: 1.2-SNAPSHOT
Category: OGC® Encoding Standard
Editor: Jeff Yutzler
Editor Emeritus: Paul Daisey
Previous Version: http://www.opengis.net/doc/IS/geopackage/1.1.0
Publication Date: YYYY-MM-DD
Approval Date: YYYY-MM-DD
Submission Date: YYYY-MM-DD
Original Version: http://www.opengis.net/doc/IS/geopackage/1.0

OGC® GeoPackage Encoding Standard

Copyright © 2016 Open Geospatial Consortium.
To obtain additional rights of use, visit http://www.opengeospatial.org/legal/

Warning

This document is not an OGC Standard. This document is distributed for review and comment. This document is subject to change without notice and may not be referred to as an OGC Standard.

Recipients of this document are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Document type: OGC® Standard
Document subtype: Encoding Standard
Document stage: Draft
Document language: English

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Abstract

This OGC® Encoding Standard defines GeoPackages for exchange and GeoPackage SQLite Extensions for direct use of vector geospatial features and / or tile matrix sets of earth images and raster maps at various scales. Direct use means the ability to access and update data in a "native" storage format without intermediate format translations in an environment (e.g. through an API) that guarantees data model and data set integrity and identical access and update results in response to identical requests from different client applications. GeoPackages are interoperable across all enterprise and personal computing environments, and are particularly useful on mobile devices like cell phones and tablets in communications environments with limited connectivity and bandwidth.

Keywords

ogcdoc, geopackage, sqlite, raster, tiles, vector, feature, data, storage, exchange, mobile, smartphone, tablet

Table of Contents

Introduction

A GeoPackage is an open, standards-based, platform-independent, portable, self-describing, compact format for transferring geospatial information. It is a platform-independent SQLite [5] database file that contains the GeoPackage data and metadata tables shown in GeoPackage Tables Overview below.

The GeoPackage Encoding Standard (this document) describes a set of conventions for storing the following within an SQLite database:

  • vector features

  • tile matrix sets of imagery and raster maps at various scales

  • attributes (non-spatial data)

  • extensions

These conventions include table definitions, integrity assertions, format limitations, and content constraints. The required and supported content of a GeoPackage is entirely defined in the standard. These capabilities are built on a common base and the extension mechanism provides implementors a way to include additional functionality in their GeoPackages.

Since a GeoPackage is a database container, it supports direct use. This means that the data in a GeoPackage can be accessed and updated in a "native" storage format without intermediate format translations. GeoPackages that comply with the requirements in the standard and do not implement vendor-specific extensions are interoperable across all enterprise and personal computing environments. GeoPackages are particularly useful on mobile devices such as cell phones and tablets in communications environments where there is limited connectivity and bandwidth.Mobile device users who require map/geospatial application services and operate in disconnected or limited network connectivity environments are challenged by limited storage capacity and the lack of open format geospatial data to support these applications.

This standard is intended to facilitate widespread adoption and use of GeoPackages by both COTS and open-source software applications on enterprise production platforms as well as mobile hand-held devices [B1] [B2], given that mobile hand held devices do not yet have the processing power or battery life to effectively tackle difficult geospatial product production and analysis tasks.

An Extended GeoPackage is a GeoPackage that contains any additional data elements (tables or columns) or SQL constructs (views, data types, functions, indexes, constraints or triggers) that are not automatically maintained within the SQLite data file or that result in a change in behavior not specified in this encoding standard.

A GeoPackage MAY be "empty" (contain user data table(s) for vector features, non-spatial attributes, and/or tile matrix pyramids with no row record content) or contain one or many vector feature type records and /or one or many tile matrix pyramid tile images. GeoPackage metadata CAN describe GeoPackage data contents and identify external data synchronization sources and targets. A GeoPackage MAY contain spatial indexes on feature geometries and SQL triggers to maintain indexes and enforce content constraints.

A GeoPackage SQLite Configuration consists of the SQLite 3 software library and a set of compile- and runtime configurations options.

A GeoPackage SQLite Extension is a SQLite loadable extension that MAY provide SQL functions [12] to support spatial indexes and SQL triggers linked to a SQLite library with specified configuration requirements to provide SQL API [1] [2] [3] [4] access to a GeoPackage file. This standard does not address the issues listed in the [_potential_future_work] clause in Background and Context (Normative), which MAY be addressed in a subsequent version of this standard or by other specifications.

GeoPackage Tables
Figure 1. GeoPackage Tables Overview

1. Base

The required capabilities specified in this clause serve as the base for options specified in clause Options and extensions specified in clause Registered Extensions (Normative). All gpkg_* tables and views and all tiles user data tables specified in this standard SHALL have only the specified columns and table constraints. Any features user data tables MAY have columns in addition to those specified. All specified table, view, column, trigger, and constraint name values SHALL be lowercase.

1.1. Core

The mandatory core capabilities defined in sub clauses and requirement statements of this clause SHALL be implemented by every GeoPackage and GeoPackage SQLite Configuration.

1.1.1. SQLite Container

The SQLite software library provides a self-contained, single-file, cross-platform, serverless, transactional, open source RDBMS container. The GeoPackage standard defines a SQL database schema designed for use with the SQLite software library. Using SQLite as the basis for GeoPackage simplifies production, distribution and use of GeoPackages and assists in guaranteeing the integrity of the data they contain.

"Self-contained" means that container software requires very minimal support from external libraries or from the operating system. "Single-file" means that a container not currently opened by any software application consists of a single file in a file system supported by a computing platform operating system. "Cross-platform" means that a container file MAY be created and loaded with data on one computing platform, and used and updated on another, even if they use different operating systems, file systems, and byte order (endian) conventions. "Serverless" means that the RDBMS container is implemented without any intermediary server process, and accessed directly by application software. "Transactional" means that RDBMS transactions guarantee that all changes to data in the container are Atomic, Consistent, Isolated, and Durable (ACID) despite program crashes, operating system crashes, and power failures.

1.1.1.1. Data
1.1.1.1.1. File Format
Requirement 1

A GeoPackage SHALL be a SQLite [5] database file using version 3 of the SQLite file format [6] [7]. The first 16 bytes of a GeoPackage SHALL be the null-terminated ASCII [B4] string "SQLite format 3" [1]. [2]

Requirement 2

A GeoPackage SHALL contain a value of 0x47504B47 ("GPKG" in ASCII) in the "application_id" field of the SQLite database header to indicate that it is a GeoPackage. [3] A GeoPackage SHALL contain an appropriate value in "user_version" field of the SQLite database header to indicate its version. The value SHALL be in integer with a major version, two-digit minor version, and two-digit bug-fix. For GeoPackage Version 1.2 this value is 0x000027D8 (the hexadecimal value for 10200). [4]

The maximum size of a GeoPackage file is about 140TB. In practice a lower size limit MAY be imposed by the filesystem to which the file is written. Many mobile devices require external memory cards to be formatted using the FAT32 file system which imposes a maximum size limit of 4GB.

1.1.1.1.2. File Extension Name
Requirement 3

A GeoPackage SHALL have the file extension name ".gpkg".

It is RECOMMENDED that Extended GeoPackages use the file extension ".gpkx", but this is NOT a GeoPackage requirement.

1.1.1.1.3. File Contents
Requirement 4

A GeoPackage SHALL only contain the data elements (tables, columns, or values) and SQL constructs (views, constraints, or triggers) specified in the core of this encoding standard (Features, Tiles, and Attributes). Extended GeoPackages MAY contain additional data elements and SQL constructs as specified through the Extension Mechanism.

The GeoPackage designation is designed to provide maximum interoperability between applications. In an Extended GeoPackage, the extension mechanism is used to provide additional capabilities in a way that maintains interoperability as much as possible. Developers are encouraged to consider the implications of extensions when designing their applications. Best practices include the following:

  • Designing in a way that anticipates the presence of unexpected extensions, e.g., gracefully handling unexpected columns, values, or encodings.

  • Using the RTree Spatial Indexes extension for GeoPackages containing a non-trivial amount of vector data.

  • Using the WKT for Coordinate Reference Systems extension, which is strongly recommended due to inherent weaknesses in the original standard for encoding coordinate reference systems.

Requirement 5

The columns of tables in a GeoPackage SHALL only be declared using one of the data types specified in table GeoPackage Data Types. Extended GeoPackages MAY contain additional data types as specified through the Extension Mechanism.

Table 1. GeoPackage Data Types
Data Type Size and Description

BOOLEAN

A boolean value representing true or false. Stored as SQLite INTEGER with value 0 for false or 1 for true.

TINYINT

8-bit signed two’s complement integer. Stored as SQLite INTEGER with values in the range [-128, 127].

SMALLINT

16-bit signed two’s complement integer. Stored as SQLite INTEGER with values in the range [-32768, 32767].

MEDIUMINT

32-bit signed two’s complement integer. Stored as SQLite INTEGER with values in the range [-2147483648, 2147483647].

INT, INTEGER

64-bit signed two’s complement integer. Stored as SQLite INTEGER with values in the range [-9223372036854775808, 9223372036854775807].

FLOAT

32-bit IEEE floating point number. Stored as SQLite REAL limited to values that can be represented as a 4-byte IEEE floating point number.

DOUBLE, REAL

64-bit IEEE floating point number. Stored as SQLite REAL.

TEXT{(maxchar_count)}

Variable length string encoded in either UTF-8 or UTF-16, determined by PRAGMA encoding; see http://www.sqlite.org/pragma.html#pragma_encoding. The optional maxchar_count defines the maximum number of characters in the string. If not specified, the length is unbounded. The count is provided for informational purposes, and applications MAY choose to truncate longer strings if encountered. When present, it is best practice for applications to adhere to the character count. Stored as SQLite TEXT.

BLOB{(max_size)}

Variable length binary data. The optional max_size defines the maximum number of bytes in the blob. If not specified, the length is unbounded. The size is provided for informational purposes. When present, it is best practice for applications adhere to the maximum blob size. Stored as SQLite BLOB.

<geometry_type_name>

Geometry encoded as per clause Geometry Encoding. <geometry type_name> is one of the core geometry types listed in Geometry Types (Normative) encoded per clause 2.1.3 or a geometry type encoded per an extension such as GeoPackage Non-Linear Geometry Types. Geometry Types XY, XYZ, XYM and XYZM geometries use the same data type. Stored as SQLite BLOB.

DATE

ISO-8601 date string in the form YYYY-MM-DD encoded in either UTF-8 or UTF-16. See TEXT. Stored as SQLite TEXT.

DATETIME

ISO-8601 date/time string in the form YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS.SSSZ with T separator character and Z suffix for coordinated universal time (UTC) encoded in either UTF-8 or UTF-16. See TEXT. Stored as SQLite TEXT.

1.1.1.1.4. File Integrity
Requirement 6

The SQLite PRAGMA integrity_check SQL command SHALL return "ok" for a GeoPackage file. [5]

Requirement 7

The SQLite PRAGMA foreign_key_check SQL with no parameter value SHALL return an empty result set indicating no invalid foreign key values for a GeoPackage file.

1.1.1.2. API
1.1.1.2.1. Structured Query Language (SQL)
Requirement 8

A GeoPackage SQLite Configuration SHALL provide SQL access to GeoPackage contents via SQLite version 3 [6] software APIs. [6]

1.1.1.2.2. Every GPKG SQLite Configuration

The SQLite [8] library has many compile time and run time options that MAY be used to configure SQLite for different uses. Use of SQLITE_OMIT options is not recommended because certain elements of the GeoPackage standard depend on the availability of SQLite functionality at runtime.

Requirement 9

Every GeoPackage SQLite Configuration SHALL have the SQLite library compile time options specified in clause 1.1.1.2.2 table [every_gpkg_sqlite_config_table].

1.1.2. Spatial Reference Systems

1.1.2.1. Data
1.1.2.1.1. Table Definition
Requirement 10

A GeoPackage SHALL include a gpkg_spatial_ref_sys table per clause 1.1.2.1.1 Table Definition, Table Spatial Ref Sys Table Definition and Table gpkg_spatial_ref_sys Table Definition SQL.

A table named gpkg_spatial_ref_sys is the first component of the standard SQL schema for simple features described in clause Simple Features SQL Introduction below. The coordinate reference system definitions it contains are referenced by the GeoPackage gpkg_contents and gpkg_geometry_columns tables to relate the vector and tile data in user tables to locations on the earth.

The gpkg_spatial_ref_sys table includes the columns specified in SQL/MM (ISO 13249-3) [12] and shown in Spatial Ref Sys Table Definition below containing data that defines spatial reference systems. Views of this table MAY be used to provide compatibility with the SQL/MM [12] (see SQL/MM View of gpkg_spatial_ref_sys Definition SQL (Informative)) and OGC Simple Features SQL [9][10][11] (Table 21) standards.

Table 2. Spatial Ref Sys Table Definition
Column Name Column Type Column Description Null Key

srs_name

TEXT

Human readable name of this SRS

no

srs_id

INTEGER

Unique identifier for each Spatial Reference System within a GeoPackage

no

PK

organization

TEXT

Case-insensitive name of the defining organization e.g. EPSG or epsg

no

organization_coordsys_id

INTEGER

Numeric ID of the Spatial Reference System assigned by the organization

no

definition

TEXT

Well-known Text [32] Representation of the Spatial Reference System

no

description

TEXT

Human readable description of this SRS

yes

1.1.2.1.2. Table Data Values

Definition column WKT values in the gpkg_spatial_ref_sys table define the Spatial Reference Systems used by feature geometries and tile images, unless these SRSs are unknown and therefore undefined as specified in Requirement 11. Values are constructed per the EBNF syntax in [32] clause 7. EBNF name and number values may be obtained from any specified authority, e.g. [13][14]. For example, see the return value in [spatial_ref_sys_data_values_default] Test Method step (3) used to test the definition for WGS-84 per Requirement 11:

Requirement 11

The gpkg_spatial_ref_sys table SHALL contain at a minimum the records listed in Spatial Ref Sys Table Records. The record with an srs_id of 4326 SHALL correspond to WGS-84 [15] as defined by EPSG [B3] in 4326 [13][14]. The record with an srs_id of -1 SHALL be used for undefined Cartesian coordinate reference systems. The record with an srs_id of 0 SHALL be used for undefined geographic coordinate reference systems.

Table 3. Spatial Ref Sys Table Records
srs_name srs_id organization organization_coordsys_id definition description

any

4326

EPSG or epsg

4326

any

any

any

-1

NONE

-1

undefined

any

any

0

NONE

0

undefined

any

Requirement 12

The gpkg_spatial_ref_sys table in a GeoPackage SHALL contain records to define all spatial reference systems used by features and tiles in a GeoPackage.

1.1.3. Contents

The gpkg_contents table is intended to provide a list of all geospatial contents in a GeoPackage. It provides identifying and descriptive information that an application can display to a user as a menu of geospatial data that is available for access and/or update.

1.1.3.1. Data
1.1.3.1.1. Table Definition
Requirement 13

A GeoPackage file SHALL include a gpkg_contents table per table Contents Table Definition and gpkg_contents Table Definition SQL.

Table 4. Contents Table Definition
Column Name Type Description Null Default Key

table_name

TEXT

The name of the tiles, or feature table

no

PK

data_type

TEXT

Type of data stored in the table

no

identifier

TEXT

A human-readable identifier (e.g. short name) for the table_name content

yes

UNIQUE

description

TEXT

A human-readable description for the table_name content

yes

''

last_change

DATETIME

timestamp of last change to content, in ISO 8601 format

no

strftime('%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%fZ', 'now')

min_x

DOUBLE

Bounding box minimum easting or longitude for all content in table_name

yes

min_y

DOUBLE

Bounding box minimum northing or latitude for all content in table_name

yes

max_x

DOUBLE

Bounding box maximum easting or longitude for all content in table_name

yes

max_y

DOUBLE

Bounding box maximum northing or latitude for all content in table_name

yes

srs_id

INTEGER

Spatial Reference System ID: gpkg_spatial_ref_sys.srs_id; when data_type is features, SHALL also match gpkg_geometry_columns.srs_id; When data_type is tiles, SHALL also match gpkg_tile_matrix_set.srs_id

yes

FK

1.1.3.1.2. Table Data Values
Requirement 14

The table_name column value in a gpkg_contents table row SHALL contain the name of a SQLite table or view.

The data_type specifies the type of content contained in the table, for example "features" per clause Features, "attributes" per clause Attributes, "tiles" per clause Tiles, or an implementer-defined value for other data tables per clause in an Extended GeoPackage.

The last_change SHOULD contain the timestamp of when the content in the referenced table was last updated, in ISO8601 format. Note that since it is not practical to ensure that this value is maintained properly in all cases, this value should be treated as informative.

Requirement 15

Values of the gpkg_contents table last_change column SHALL be in ISO 8601 [29] format containing a complete date plus UTC hours, minutes, seconds and a decimal fraction of a second, with a Z (zulu) suffix indicating UTC. The ISO8601 format is as defined by the strftime function %Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%fZ format string applied to the current time. [7]

The bounding box (min_x, min_y, max_x, max_y) provides an informative bounding box (not necessarily minimum bounding box) of the content. The values are in the units specified by that CRS.

Requirement 16

Values of the gpkg_contents table srs_id column SHALL reference values in the gpkg_spatial_ref_sys table srs_id column.

2. Options

The optional capabilities specified in this clause depend on the required capabilities specified in clause Base above. Each subclause of this clause defines an indivisible module of functionality that can be used in GeoPackages. These modules are referred to as options. GeoPackages MAY use one or more options defined in this section. GeoPackages MAY omit the tables for options that are not used. At a minimum, a GeoPackage SHOULD contain at least one user data table as defined by the Features, Tiles, or Attributes options in clauses Features, Tiles, and Attributes respectively.

Requirement 17

A GeoPackage or Extended GeoPackage SHALL contain features per clause Features and/or tiles per clause Tiles and row(s) in the gpkg_contents table with lowercase data_type column values of "features" and/or "tiles" describing the user data tables.

2.1. Features

2.1.1. Simple Features SQL Introduction

Vector feature data represents geolocated entities including conceptual ones such as districts, real world objects such as roads and rivers, and observations thereof. International standards [9][10][11][12] have standardized practices for the storage, access and use of vector geospatial features and geometries via SQL in relational databases. The first component of the SQL schema for vector features in a GeoPackage is the gpkg_spatial_ref_sys table defined in clause Spatial Reference Systems above. Other components are defined below.

In a GeoPackage, "simple" features are geolocated using a linear geometry subset of the SQL/MM (ISO 13249-3) [12] geometry model shown in Core Geometry Model below.

Core geometry model
Figure 2. Core Geometry Model

The instantiable (not abstract) geometry types defined in this Standard are restricted to 0, 1 and 2-dimensional geometric objects that exist in 2, 3 or 4-dimensional coordinate space (R2, R3 or R4). Geometry values in R2 have points with coordinate values for x and y. Geometry values in R3 have points with coordinate values for x, y and z or for x, y and m. Geometry values in R4 have points with coordinate values for x, y, z and m. The interpretation of the coordinates is subject to the coordinate reference systems associated to the point. All coordinates within a geometry object should be in the same coordinate reference systems.

Geometries MAY include z coordinate values. The z coordinate value traditionally represents the third dimension (i.e. 3D). In a Geographic Information System (GIS) this may be height above or below sea level. For example: A map might have a point identifying the position of a mountain peak by its location on the earth, with the x and y coordinate values, and the height of the mountain, with the z coordinate value.

Geometries MAY include m coordinate values. The m coordinate value allows the application environment to associate some measure with the point values. For example: A stream network may be modeled as multilinestring value with the m coordinate values measuring the distance from the mouth of stream.

A brief description of each geometry type is provided below. A more detailed description can be found in ISO 13249-3 [12].

  • Geometry: the root of the geometry type hierarchy.

  • Point: a single location in space. Each point has an X and Y coordinate. A point MAY optionally also have a Z and/or an M value.

  • Curve: the base type for all 1-dimensional geometry types. A 1-dimensional geometry is a geometry that has a length, but no area. A curve is considered simple if it does not intersect itself (except at the start and end point). A curve is considered closed its start and end point are coincident. A simple, closed curve is called a ring.

  • LineString: A Curve that connects two or more points in space.

  • Surface: the base type for all 2-dimensional geometry types. A 2-dimensional geometry is a geometry that has an area.

  • CurvePolygon: A planar surface defined by an exterior ring and zero or more interior ring. Each ring is defined by a Curve instance.

  • Polygon: A restricted form of CurvePolygon where each ring is defined as a simple, closed LineString.

  • GeometryCollection: A collection of zero or more Geometry instances. [8]

  • MultiSurface: A restricted form of GeometryCollection where each Geometry in the collection must be of type Surface.

  • MultiPolygon: A restricted form of MultiSurface where each Surface in the collection must be of type Polygon.

  • MultiCurve: A restricted form of GeometryCollection where each Geometry in the collection must be of type Curve.

  • MultiLineString: A restricted form of MultiCurve where each Curve in the collection must be of type LineString.

  • MultiPoint: A restricted form of GeometryCollection where each Geometry in the collection must be of type Point.

2.1.2. Contents

2.1.2.1. Data
2.1.2.1.1. Contents Table – Features Row
Requirement 18

The gpkg_contents table SHALL contain a row with a lowercase data_type column value of "features" for each vector features user data table or view.

2.1.3. Geometry Encoding

2.1.3.1. Data
2.1.3.1.1. BLOB Format
Requirement 19

A GeoPackage SHALL store feature table geometries with or without optional elevation (Z) and/or measure (M) values in SQL BLOBs using the Standard GeoPackageBinary format specified in table GeoPackage SQL Geometry Binary Format and clause BLOB Format.

GeoPackage SQL Geometry Binary Format
GeoPackageBinaryHeader {
  byte[2] magic = 0x4750; (1)
  byte version;           (2)
  byte flags;             (3)
  int32 srs_id;
  double[] envelope;      (4)
}

StandardGeoPackageBinary {
  GeoPackageBinaryHeader header; (5)
  WKBGeometry geometry;          (6)
}
1 GP in ASCII
2 8-bit unsigned integer, 0 = version 1
3 see bit layout of GeoPackageBinary flags byte
4 see flags envelope contents indicator code below
5 The X bit in the header flags field must be set to 0.
6 per OGC 06-103r4 [9] [9][10][11]
Table 5. bit layout of GeoPackageBinary flags byte

bit

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

use

R

R

X

Y

E

E

E

B

flag bits use:

  • R: reserved for future use; set to 0

  • X: GeoPackageBinary type

  • Y: empty geometry flag

    • 0: non-empty geometry

    • 1: empty geometry

  • E: envelope contents indicator code (3-bit unsigned integer)

    • 0: no envelope (space saving slower indexing option), 0 bytes

    • 1: envelope is [minx, maxx, miny, maxy], 32 bytes

    • 2: envelope is [minx, maxx, miny, maxy, minz, maxz], 48 bytes

    • 3: envelope is [minx, maxx, miny, maxy, minm, maxm], 48 bytes

    • 4: envelope is [minx, maxx, miny, maxy, minz, maxz, minm, maxm], 64 bytes

    • 5-7: invalid

  • B: byte order for header values (1-bit Boolean)

    • 0: Big Endian (most significant byte first)

    • 1: Little Endian (least significant byte first)

Well-Known Binary as defined in OGC 06-103r4 [9] does not provide a standardized encoding for an empty point set (i.e., Point Empty in Well-Known Text). In GeoPackages these points SHALL be encoded as a Point where each coordinate value is set to an IEEE-754 quiet NaN value. GeoPackages SHALL use big endian 0x7ff8000000000000 or little endian 0x000000000000f87f as the binary encoding of the NaN values.

When the WKBGeometry in a GeoPackageBinary is empty, either the envelope contents indicator code SHALL be 0 indicating no envelope, or the envelope SHALL have its values set to NaN as defined for an empty point.

2.1.4. SQL Geometry Types

2.1.4.1. Data
2.1.4.1.1. Core Types
Requirement 20

A GeoPackage SHALL store feature table geometries with the basic simple feature geometry types (Geometry, Point, LineString, Polygon, MultiPoint, MultiLineString, MultiPolygon, GeomCollection) in Geometry Types (Normative) Geometry Type Codes (Core) in the GeoPackageBinary geometry encoding format.

2.1.5. Geometry Columns

2.1.5.1. Data
2.1.5.1.1. Table Definition
Requirement 21

A GeoPackage with a gpkg_contents table row with a "features" data_type SHALL contain a gpkg_geometry_columns table per Geometry Columns Table Definition and gpkg_geometry_columns Table Definition SQL.

The second component of the SQL schema for vector features in a GeoPackage is a gpkg_geometry_columns table that identifies the geometry columns and geometry types in tables that contain user data representing features.

Table 6. Geometry Columns Table Definition
Column Name Type Description Null Key

table_name

TEXT

Name of the table containing the geometry column

no

PK, FK

column_name

TEXT

Name of a column in the feature table that is a Geometry Column

no

PK

geometry_type_name

TEXT

Name from Geometry Type Codes (Core) or Geometry Type Codes (Extension) in Geometry Types (Normative)

no

srs_id

INTEGER

Spatial Reference System ID: gpkg_spatial_ref_sys.srs_id

no

FK

z

TINYINT

0: z values prohibited; 1: z values mandatory; 2: z values optional

no

m

TINYINT

0: m values prohibited; 1: m values mandatory; 2: m values optional

no

The FK on gpkg_geometry_columns.srs_id references the PK on gpkg_spatial_ref_sys.srs_id to ensure that geometry columns are only defined in feature tables for defined spatial reference systems.

Views of this table MAY be used to provide compatibility with the SQL/MM [12] SQL/MM View of gpkg_geometry_columns Definition SQL (Informative) and OGC Simple Features SQL [9][10][11] SF/SQL VIEW of gpkg_geometry_columns Definition SQL (Informative) specifications.

2.1.5.1.2. Table Data Values
Requirement 22

The gpkg_geometry_columns table SHALL contain one row record for the geometry column in each vector feature data table (clause Vector Feature User Data Tables) in a GeoPackage.

Requirement 23

Values of the gpkg_geometry_columns table_name column SHALL reference values in the gpkg_contents table_name column for rows with a data_type of features.

Requirement 24

The column_name column value in a gpkg_geometry_columns row SHALL be the name of a column in the table or view specified by the table_name column value for that row.

Requirement 25

The geometry_type_name value in a gpkg_geometry_columns row SHALL be one of the uppercase geometry type names specified in Geometry Types (Normative).

Requirement 26

The srs_id value in a gpkg_geometry_columns table row SHALL be an srs_id column value from the gpkg_spatial_ref_sys table.

Requirement 27

The z value in a gpkg_geometry_columns table row SHALL be one of 0, 1, or 2.

Requirement 28

The m value in a gpkg_geometry_columns table row SHALL be one of 0, 1, or 2.

2.1.6. Vector Feature User Data Tables

2.1.6.1. Data
2.1.6.1.1. Table Definition

The third component of the SQL schema for vector features in a GeoPackage described in clause Simple Features SQL Introduction above are tables that contain user data representing features. Feature attributes are columns in a feature table, including geometries. Features are rows in a feature table. [12]

Requirement 29

A GeoPackage MAY contain tables or updateable views containing vector features. Every such feature table or view in a GeoPackage SHALL have a column with column type INTEGER and PRIMARY KEY AUTOINCREMENT column constraints per EXAMPLE : Sample Feature Table or View Definition and sample_feature_table Table Definition SQL (Informative).

The integer primary key of a feature table allows features to be linked to row level metadata records in the gpkg_metadata table by rowid [B5] values in the gpkg_metadata_reference table as described in clause Metadata Reference Table below.

Requirement 30

A feature table SHALL have only one geometry column.

Feature data models [B23] from non-GeoPackage implementations that have multiple geometry columns per feature table MAY be transformed into GeoPackage implementations with a separate feature table for each geometry type whose rows have matching integer primary key values that allow them to be joined in a view with the same column definitions as the non-GeoPackage feature data model with multiple geometry columns.

Requirement 31

The declared SQL type of the geometry column in a vector feature user data table SHALL be specified by the geometry_type_name column for that column_name and table_name in the gpkg_geometry_columns table.

Table 7. EXAMPLE : Sample Feature Table or View Definition
Column Name Type Description Null Default Key

id

INTEGER

Autoincrement primary key

no

PK

geometry

GEOMETRY

GeoPackage Geometry

yes

text_attribute

TEXT

Text attribute of feature

yes

real_attribute

REAL

Real attribute of feature

yes

boolean_attribute

BOOLEAN

Boolean attribute of feature

yes

raster_or_photo

BLOB

Photograph of the area

yes

2.1.6.1.2. Table Data Values

A feature geometry is stored in a geometry column specified by the geometry_column value for the feature table in the gpkg_geometry_columns table defined in clause Geometry Columns above.

The geometry type of a feature geometry column specified in the gpkg_geometry_columns table geometry_type_name column is a name from Geometry Types (Normative).

Requirement 32

Feature table geometry columns SHALL contain geometries of the type or assignable for the type specified for the column by the gpkg_geometry_columns table geometry_type_name uppercase column value [13].

Geometry subtypes are assignable as defined in Geometry Types (Normative) and shown in part in Core Geometry Model. For example, if the geometry_type_name value in the gpkg_geometry_columns table is for a geometry type like POINT that has no subtypes, then the feature table geometry column MAY only contain geometries of that type. If the geometry type_name value in the gpkg_geometry_columns table is for a geometry type like GEOMCOLLECTION that has subtypes, then the feature table geometry column MAY only contain geometries of that type or any of its direct or indirect subtypes. If the geometry type_name is GEOMETRY (the root of the geometry type hierarchy) then the feature table geometry column MAY contain geometries of any geometry type.

The presence or absence of optional elevation (Z) and/or measure (M) values in a geometry does not change its type or assignability. The unit of measure for optional elevation(Z) values is determined by the CRS of the geometry; it is as-defined by a 3D CRS, and undefined for a 2D CRS. The unit of measure for optional measure (M) values is determined by the CRS of the geometry.

The spatial reference system type of a feature geometry column specified by a gpkg_geometry_columns table srs_id column value is a code from the gpkg_spatial_ref_sys table srs_id column.

Requirement 33

Feature table geometry columns SHALL contain geometries with the srs_id specified for the column by the gpkg_geometry_columns table srs_id column value.

2.2. Tiles

2.2.1. Tile Matrix Introduction

The Tiles option specifies a mechanism for storing raster data in tile pyramids. "Tile pyramid" refers to the concept of pyramid structure of tiles of different spatial extent and resolution at different zoom levels, and the tile data itself. "Tile" refers to an individual raster image such as a PNG or JPEG that covers a specific geographic area. "Tile matrix" refers to rows and columns of tiles that all have the same spatial extent and resolution at a particular zoom level[14]. "Tile matrix set" refers to the definition of a tile pyramid’s tiling structure. This mechanism is based on the model for tile matrix sets described in Section 6 of [16].

The GeoPackage tile store data model MAY be implemented directly as SQL tables in a SQLite database for maximum performance, or as SQL views on top of tables in an existing SQLite tile store for maximum adaptability and loose coupling to enable widespread implementation. A GeoPackage CAN store multiple raster and tile pyramid data sets in different tables or views in the same container. The tables or views that implement the GeoPackage tile store data / metadata model are described and discussed individually in the following subsections.

The tile store data / metadata model and conventions described below support direct use of tiles in a GeoPackage in two ways. First, they specify how existing application MAY create SQL Views of the data / metadata model on top of existing application tables that that follow different interface conventions. Second, they include and expose enough metadata information at both the dataset and record level to allow applications that use GeoPackage data to discover its characteristics without having to parse all of the stored images. Applications that store GeoPackage tile data, which are presumed to have this information available, should store sufficient metadata to enable its intended use.

2.2.2. Contents

2.2.2.1. Data
2.2.2.1.1. Contents Table – Tiles Row
Requirement 34

The gpkg_contents table SHALL contain a row with a data_type column value of "tiles" for each tile pyramid user data table or view.

2.2.3. Zoom Levels

In a GeoPackage, zoom levels are integers in sequence from 0 to n that identify tile matrix layers in a tile matrix set that contain tiles of decreasing spatial extent and finer spatial resolution. Adjacent zoom levels immediately precede or follow each other and differ by a value of 1. Pixel sizes are real numbers in the terrain units of the spatial reference system of a tile image specifying the dimensions of the real world area represented by one pixel. Pixel size MAY vary by a constant factor or by different factors or intervals between some or all adjacent zoom levels in a tile matrix set. In the commonly used "zoom times two" convention, pixel sizes vary by a factor of 2 between all adjacent zoom levels, as shown in the example in Tiles Zoom Times Two Example (Informative). Other "zoom other intervals" conventions use different factors or irregular intervals with pixel sizes chosen for intuitive cartographic representation of raster data, or to coincide with the original pixel size of commonly used global image products. See Web Map Tile Service (WMTS) [16] Annex E for additional examples of both conventions.

2.2.3.1. Data
2.2.3.1.1. Zoom Times Two
Requirement 35

In a GeoPackage that contains a tile pyramid user data table that contains tile data, by default [15], zoom level pixel sizes for that table SHALL vary by a factor of 2 between adjacent zoom levels in the tile matrix metadata table.

2.2.4. Tile Encoding PNG

2.2.4.1. Data
2.2.4.1.1. MIME Type PNG
Requirement 36

In a GeoPackage that contains a tile pyramid user data table that contains tile data that is not MIME type image/jpeg [17][18][19], by default SHALL store that tile data in MIME type image/png [20][21]. [16]

2.2.5. Tile Encoding JPEG

2.2.5.1. Data
2.2.5.1.1. MIME Type JPEG
Requirement 37

In a GeoPackage that contains a tile pyramid user data table that contains tile data that is not MIME type image/png [20][21], by default SHALL store that tile data in MIME type image/jpeg [17][18][19]. [17]

2.2.6. Tile Matrix Set

2.2.6.1. Data
2.2.6.1.1. Table Definition
Requirement 38

A GeoPackage that contains a tile pyramid user data table SHALL contain gpkg_tile_matrix_set table per Table Definition, Tile Matrix Set Table Definition and gpkg_tile_matrix_set Table Creation SQL.

Table 8. Tile Matrix Set Table Definition
Column Name Column Type Column Description Null Default Key

table_name

TEXT

Tile Pyramid User Data Table Name

no

PK, FK

srs_id

INTEGER

Spatial Reference System ID: gpkg_spatial_ref_sys.srs_id

no

FK

min_x

DOUBLE

Bounding box minimum easting or longitude for all content in table_name

no

min_y

DOUBLE

Bounding box minimum northing or latitude for all content in table_name

no

max_x

DOUBLE

Bounding box maximum easting or longitude for all content in table_name

no

max_y

DOUBLE

Bounding box maximum northing or latitude for all content in table_name

no

The gpkg_tile_matrix_set table defines the spatial reference system (srs_id) and the maximum bounding box (min_x, min_y, max_x, max_y) for all possible tiles in a tile pyramid user data table. All tiles present in the tile pyramid SHALL fall within this bounding box. However, the bounding box MAY be larger than the minimum bounding rectangle around the actual tiles in that pyramid.

2.2.6.1.2. Table Data Values

The minimum bounding box defined in the gpkg_tile_matrix_set table for a tile pyramid user data table SHALL be exact so that the bounding box coordinates for individual tiles in a tile pyramid MAY be calculated based on the column values for the user data table in the gpkg_tile_matrix table. For example, because GeoPackages use the upper left tile origin convention defined in clause Table Data Values below, the gpkg_tile_matrix_set (min_x, max_y) ordinate is the upper-left corner of tile (0,0) for all zoom levels in a table_name tile pyramid user data table.

Requirement 39

Values of the gpkg_tile_matrix_set table_name column SHALL reference values in the gpkg_contents table_name column for rows with a data type of "tiles"[18].

Requirement 40

The gpkg_tile_matrix_set table SHALL contain one row record for each tile pyramid user data table.

Requirement 41

Values of the gpkg_tile_matrix_set srs_id column SHALL reference values in the gpkg_spatial_ref_sys srs_id column.

2.2.7. Tile Matrix

2.2.7.1. Data
2.2.7.1.1. Table Definition
Requirement 42

A GeoPackage that contains a tile pyramid user data table SHALL contain a gpkg_tile_matrix table per clause 2.2.7.1.1 Table Definition, Table Tile Matrix Metadata Table Definition and Table gpkg_tile_matrix Table Creation SQL.

Table 9. Tile Matrix Metadata Table Definition
Column Name Column Type Column Description Null Key

table_name

TEXT

Tile Pyramid User Data Table Name

no

PK, FK

zoom_level

INTEGER

0 <= zoom_level <= max_level for table_name

no

PK

matrix_width

INTEGER

Number of columns (>= 1) in tile matrix at this zoom level

no

matrix_height

INTEGER

Number of rows (>= 1) in tile matrix at this zoom level

no

tile_width

INTEGER

Tile width in pixels (>= 1)for this zoom level

no

tile_height

INTEGER

Tile height in pixels (>= 1) for this zoom level

no

pixel_x_size

DOUBLE

In t_table_name srid units or default meters for srid 0 (>0)

no

pixel_y_size

DOUBLE

In t_table_name srid units or default meters for srid 0 (>0)

no

The gpkg_tile_matrix table documents the structure of the tile matrix at each zoom level in each tiles table. It allows GeoPackages to contain rectangular as well as square tiles (e.g. for better representation of polar regions). It allows tile pyramids with zoom levels that differ in resolution by factors of 2, irregular intervals, or regular intervals other than factors of 2.

2.2.7.1.2. Table Data Values
Requirement 43

Values of the gpkg_tile_matrix table_name column SHALL reference values in the gpkg_contents table_name column for rows with a data_type of "tiles"[19].

Requirement 44

The gpkg_tile_matrix table SHALL contain one row record for each zoom level that contains one or more tiles in each tile pyramid user data table or view.

Requirement 45

The width of a tile matrix (the difference between min_x and max_x in gpkg_tile_matrix_set) SHALL equal the product of matrix_width, tile_width, and pixel_x_size for that zoom level. Similarly, height of a tile matrix (the difference between min_y and max_y in gpkg_tile_matrix_set) SHALL equal the product of matrix_height, tile_height, and pixel_y_size for that zoom level.

The gpkg_tile_matrix table MAY contain row records for zoom levels in a tile pyramid user data table that do not contain tiles.

GeoPackages follow the most frequently used conventions of a tile origin at the upper left and a zoom-out-level of 0 for the smallest map scale "whole world" zoom level view [20], as specified by WMTS [16]. The tile coordinate (0,0) always refers to the tile in the upper left corner of the tile matrix at any zoom level, regardless of the actual availability of that tile.

Requirement 46

The zoom_level column value in a gpkg_tile_matrix table row SHALL not be negative.

Requirement 47

The matrix_width column value in a gpkg_tile_matrix table row SHALL be greater than 0.

Requirement 48

The matrix_height column value in a gpkg_tile_matrix table row SHALL be greater than 0.

Requirement 49

The tile_width column value in a gpkg_tile_matrix table row SHALL be greater than 0.

Requirement 50

The tile_height column value in a gpkg_tile_matrix table row SHALL be greater than 0.

Requirement 51

The pixel_x_size column value in a gpkg_tile_matrix table row SHALL be greater than 0.

Requirement 52

The pixel_y_size column value in a gpkg_tile_matrix table row SHALL be greater than 0.

Requirement 53

When zoom_level column values in the gpkg_tile_matrix table are sorted in ascending order, the pixel_x_size and pixel_y_size column values in the gpkg_tile_matrix table SHALL appear sorted in descending order.

Tiles MAY or MAY NOT be provided for level 0 or any other particular zoom level. [21] This means that a tile matrix set can be sparse, i.e. not contain a tile for any particular position at a certain tile zoom level. [22] This does not affect the informative spatial extent stated by the min/max x/y columns values in the gpkg_contents record for the same table_name, the exact spatial extent stated by the min/max x/y columns values in the gpkg_tile_matrix_set record for the same table name, or the tile matrix width and height at that level. [23]

2.2.8. Tile Pyramid User Data Tables

2.2.8.1. Data
2.2.8.1.1. Table Definition
Requirement 54

Each tile matrix set in a GeoPackage SHALL be stored in a different tile pyramid user data table or updateable view with a unique name that SHALL have a column named "id" with column type INTEGER and PRIMARY KEY AUTOINCREMENT column constraints per Clause 2.2.8.1.1 Table Definition, Tiles Table or View Definition and EXAMPLE: tiles table Create Table SQL (Informative).

Table 10. Tiles Table or View Definition
Column Name Column Type Column Description Null Default Key

id

INTEGER

Autoincrement primary key

no

PK

zoom_level

INTEGER

min(zoom_level) <= zoom_level <= max(zoom_level) for t_table_name

no

0

UK

tile_column

INTEGER

0 to tile_matrix matrix_width – 1

no

0

UK

tile_row

INTEGER

0 to tile_matrix matrix_height - 1

no

0

UK

tile_data

BLOB

Of an image MIME type specified in clauses Tile Encoding PNG, Tile Encoding JPEG, [tile_enc_webp]

no

2.2.8.1.2. Table Data Values

Each tile pyramid user data table or view [24] MAY contain tile matrices at zero or more zoom levels of different spatial resolution (map scale).

Requirement 55

For each distinct table_name from the gpkg_tile_matrix (tm) table, the tile pyramid (tp) user data table zoom_level column value in a GeoPackage SHALL be in the range min(tm.zoom_level) <= tp.zoom_level <= max(tm.zoom_level).

Requirement 56

For each distinct table_name from the gpkg_tile_matrix (tm) table, the tile pyramid (tp) user data table tile_column column value in a GeoPackage SHALL be in the range 0 <= tp.tile_column <= tm.matrix_width – 1 where the tm and tp zoom_level column values are equal.

Requirement 57

For each distinct table_name from the gpkg_tile_matrix (tm) table, the tile pyramid (tp) user data table tile_row column value in a GeoPackage SHALL be in the range 0 <= tp.tile_row <= tm.matrix_height – 1 where the tm and tp zoom_level column values are equal.

All tiles at a particular zoom level have the same pixel_x_size and pixel_y_size values specified in the gpkg_tile_matrix row record for that tiles table and zoom level. [25]

2.3. Extension Mechanism

2.3.1. Introduction

A GeoPackage extension is a set of one or more requirements clauses that either profiles / extends existing requirements clauses in the GeoPackage standard or adds new requirements clauses. Existing requirement clause extension examples include additional geometry types, additional SQL geometry functions, and additional tile image formats. New requirement clause extension examples include spatial indexes, triggers, additional tables, other BLOB column encodings, and other SQL functions. Files that use one or more extensions are by definition Extended GeoPackages. Extensions that have been already approved by OGC are presented in Registered Extensions (Normative). However, additional extensions MAY be approved by OGC outside of the release cycle of this document.

We acknowledge that there are use cases not covered by this standard. Implementers are welcome to use the extension mechanism defined here to develop their own extensions. The extension mechanism provides advantages including discoverability (the extensions in use can be discovered by scanning a single table) and uniformity (declaring that an extension is in use indicates that a defined set of requirements are being met). However, this is a decision that should be made carefully as custom extensions do introduce interoperability risks.

OGC is unable to endorse extensions developed externally. Therefore an Extended GeoPackage containing extensions not developed by OGC will fail Requirement 4. However, a community of interest MAY waive that requirement in its own GeoPackage profile, with the caveat that it must bear the responsibility of endorsing the new extension(s).

Implementers that are interested in developing their own extensions are encouraged to contact OGC to ensure that the extensions are developed in accordance with OGC policies and in a way that minimizes risks to interoperability. OGC will consider adopting externally developed extensions that address a clear use case, have a sound technical approach, and have a commitment to implementation by multiple implementers.

GeoPackage extensions are documented using the GeoPackage Extension Template in GeoPackage Extension Template (Informative). Extensions are identified by a name of the form <author>_<extension name> where <author> indicates the person or organization that developed and maintains the extension. The author value "gpkg" is reserved for extensions that are developed, maintained, and approved by OGC. Implementers must use their own author names to register other extensions used in Extended GeoPackages.

2.3.2. Extensions

2.3.2.1. Data
2.3.2.1.1. Table Definition
Requirement 58

A GeoPackage MAY contain a table or updateable view named gpkg_extensions. If present this table SHALL be defined per clause 2.3.2.1.1 Table Definition, GeoPackage Extensions Table or View Definition (Table or View Name: gpkg_extensions), and gpkg_extensions Table Definition SQL. An extension SHALL NOT modify the definition or semantics of existing columns. An extension MAY define additional tables or columns. An extension MAY allow new values or encodings for existing columns.

The gpkg_extensions table or updateable view in a GeoPackage is used to indicate that a particular extension applies to a GeoPackage, a table in a GeoPackage, or a column of a table in a GeoPackage. An application that accesses a GeoPackage can query the gpkg_extensions table instead of the contents of all the user data tables to determine if it has the required capabilities to read or write to tables with extensions, and to "fail fast" and return an error message if it does not.

Table 11. GeoPackage Extensions Table or View Definition (Table or View Name: gpkg_extensions)
Column Name Col Type Column Description Null Key

table_name

TEXT

Name of the table that requires the extension. When NULL, the extension is required for the entire GeoPackage. SHALL NOT be NULL when the column_name is not NULL.

yes

Jointly Unique

column_name

TEXT

Name of the column that requires the extension. When NULL, the extension is required for the entire table.

yes

Jointly Unique

extension_name

TEXT

The case sensitive name of the extension that is required, in the form <author>_<extension_name>.

no

Jointly Unique

definition

TEXT

Permalink, URI, or reference to a document that defines the extension

no

scope

TEXT

Indicates scope of extension effects on readers / writers: read-write or write-only in lowercase.

no

2.3.2.1.2. Table Data Values
Requirement 59

In an Extended GeoPackage, every extension SHALL be registered in a corresponding row in the gpkg_extensions table. An extension SHALL NOT modify the definition or semantics of existing columns. An extension MAY define additional tables or columns. An extension MAY allow new values or encodings for existing columns. Either the absence of a gpkg_extensions table or the absence of rows in the gpkg_extensions table SHALL indicate that the file is a GeoPackage (as opposed to an Extended GeoPackage).

Requirement 60

Values of the gpkg_extensions table_name column MAY reference values in the gpkg_contents table_name, reference new tables required by that extension, or be NULL (to indicate an extension that requires no new tables).

Requirement 61

The column_name column value in a gpkg_extensions row SHALL be the name of a column in the table specified by the table_name column value for that row, or be NULL.

Requirement 62

Each extension_name column value in a gpkg_extensions row SHALL be a unique case sensitive value of the form <author>_<extension_name> where <author> indicates the person or organization that developed and maintains the extension. The valid character set for <author> SHALL be [a-zA-Z0-9]. The valid character set for <extension_name> SHALL be [a-zA-Z0-9_]. An extension_name for the "gpkg" author name SHALL be one of those defined in this encoding standard or in an OGC document (e.g. Best Practices Document or Encoding Standard) that extends it.

The author value "gpkg" is reserved for GeoPackage extensions that are developed and maintained by OGC. GeoPackage implementers use their own author names to register other extensions.

Requirement 63

The definition column value in a gpkg_extensions row SHALL contain a permalink, URI [23], or reference to a document defining the extension as per the GeoPackage Extension Template (Informative).

Examples of how to fill out the GeoPackage Extension Template in GeoPackage Extension Template (Informative) are provided in Annex F. This column is not unique because an extension may define multiple tables.

Requirement 64

The scope column value in a gpkg_extensions row SHALL be lowercase "read-write" for an extension that affects both readers and writers, or "write-only" for an extension that affects only writers.

Some extensions do not impose any additional requirements on software that accesses a GeoPackage in a read-only fashion. An example of this is an extension that defines an SQL trigger that uses a non-standard SQL function defined in a GeoPackage SQLite Extension. Triggers are only invoked when data is written to the GeoPackage, so usage of this type of extension can be safely ignored for read-only access. This is indicated by a gpkg_extensions.scope column value of "write_only".

2.4. Attributes

2.4.1. Introduction

Non-spatial attribute data are sets (or tuples or rows) of observations that may not have an explicit geometry property. In GeoPackage, this data is stored in user-defined attribute tables. These tables may contain properties such as an ID or geo-locatable address that allow them to be relationally linkable to rows in other attribute, feature or tile tables.

Examples of attribute data include:

  • meteorological readings from a weather station

  • flow readings from a stream gauge

  • traffic volumes from embedded highway sensors

  • lists of customers

  • delivery stops

  • work orders

2.4.2. Contents

2.4.2.1. Data
2.4.2.1.1. Contents Table - Attributes Row
Requirement 118

The gpkg_contents table SHALL contain a row with a data_type column value of "attributes" for each attributes data table or view.

2.4.3. Attributes User Data Tables

2.4.3.1. Data
2.4.3.1.1. Table Definition

Non-spatial attribute data is stored in user-defined Attribute tables. Attribute sets are rows in an Attribute table. The attributes are columns in a Attribute table. (A GeoPackage is not required to contain any Attribute data tables. Attribute data tables in a GeoPackage may be empty.)

Requirement 119

A GeoPackage MAY contain tables or updatable views containing attribute sets. Every such Attribute table or view in a GeoPackage SHALL have a column with column type INTEGER and PRIMARY KEY AUTOINCREMENT column constraints per GeoPackage Attributes Example Table or View Definition and EXAMPLE: Attributes table Create Table SQL (Informative).

The integer primary key of an Attribute table allows attribute sets to be linked to row level metadata records in the gpkg_metadata table by rowid [B5] values in the gpkg_metadata_reference table as described in clause Metadata below.

Table 12. GeoPackage Attributes Example Table or View Definition
Column Name Col Type Column Description Null Key

id

INTEGER

Autoincrement primary key

no

PK

text_attribute

TEXT

Text attribute of feature

yes

real_attribute

REAL

Real attribute of feature

yes

boolean_attribute

BOOLEAN

Boolean attribute of feature

yes

raster_or_photo

BLOB

Photo of the area

yes

3. Security Considerations

Security considerations for implementations utilizing GeoPackages are in the domain of the implementing application, deployment platform, operating system and networking environment. The GeoPackage standard does not place any constraints on application, platform, operating system level or network security.

Annex A: Conformance / Abstract Test Suite (Normative)

A.1. Base

A.1.1. Core

A.1.1.1. SQLite Container
A.1.1.1.1. Data

File Format

Test Case ID

/base/core/container/data/file_format

Test Purpose

Verify that the GeoPackage is an SQLite version_3 database

Test Method

Pass if the first 16 bytes of the file contain "SQLite format 3" in ASCII.

Reference

Clause 1.1.1.1.1 Req 1:

Test Type

Basic

Test Case ID

/base/core/container/data/file_format/application_id

Test Purpose

Verify that the SQLite database header application id field indicates GeoPackage version 1.0

Test Method

  1. Retrieve the bytes at the application id of the SQLite database header

  2. If the string is "GP10" in ASCII, fall back to the tests for GeoPackage 1.0.

  3. If the string is "GP11" in ASCII, fall back to the tests for GeoPackage 1.1.

  4. If the string is "GPKG" in ASCII

    1. PRAGMA user_version

    2. Fail if the integer representation of the user_version string is less than 10200.

  5. Fail if the string is not one of those values

Reference

Clause 1.1.1.1.1 Req 2:

Test Type

Basic

File Extension Name

Test Case ID

/base/core/container/data/file_extension_name

Test Purpose

Verify that the GeoPackage extension is ".gpkg"

Test Method

Pass if the GeoPackage file extension is ".gpkg"

Reference

Clause 1.1.1.1.2 Req 3:

Test Type

Basic

File Contents

Test Case ID

/base/core/container/data/file_contents

Test Purpose

Verify that the GeoPackage only contains specified contents

Test Method

  1. SELECT COUNT(*) from gpkg_extensions;

  2. Not testable if table exists and count > 0

  3. For each gpkg_* table_name

    1. PRAGMA table_info(table_name)

    2. Continue if returns an empty result set

    3. Fail if column definitions returned by "PRAGMA table_info" do not match column definitions for the table in Annex C.

  4. Pass if no fails

Reference

Clause 1.1.1.1.3 Req 4:

Test Type

Basic

Test Case ID

/base/core/container/data/table_data_types

Test Purpose

Verify that the data types of GeoPackage columns include only the types specified by [table_column_data_types].

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type IN ('tiles','features','attributes')

  2. Not testable if returns empty set

  3. For each row table name from step 1

    1. PRAGMA table_info(table_name)

    2. For each row type column value

      1. Fail if value is not one of the data type names specified by [table_column_data_types]

  4. Pass if no fails

Reference

Test Type

Basic

Integrity Check

Test Case ID

/base/core/container/data/file_integrity

Test Purpose

Verify that the GeoPackage passes the SQLite integrity check.

Test Method

Pass if "PRAGMA integrity_check" returns "ok"

Reference

Clause [_file_integrity] Req 6:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/base/core/container/data/foreign_key_integrity

Test Purpose

Verify that the GeoPackage passes the SQLite foreign_key_check.

Test Method

Pass if "PRAGMA foreign_key_check" (with no parameter value) returns an empty result set

Reference

Clause [_file_integrity] Req 7:

Test Type

Capability

A.1.1.1.2. API

Structured Query Language

Test Case ID

/base/core/container/api/sql

Test Purpose

Test that the GeoPackage SQLite Extension provides the SQLite SQL API interface.

Test Method

  1. sqlite3_exec('SELECT * FROM sqlite_master;)

  2. Fail if returns an SQL error.

  3. Pass otherwise

Reference

Clause 1.1.1.2.1 Req 8:

Test Type

Capability

A.1.1.2. Spatial Reference Systems
A.1.1.2.1. Data

Table Definition

Test Case ID

/base/core/gpkg_spatial_ref_sys/data/table_def

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_spatial_ref_sys table exists and has the correct definition.

Test Method

  1. SELECT sql FROM sqlite_master WHERE type = 'table' AND tbl_name = 'gpkg_spatial_ref_sys'

  2. Fail if returns an empty result set

  3. Pass if column names and column definitions in the returned CREATE TABLE statement in the sql column value, including data type, nullability, and primary key constraints match all of those in the contents of C.1 Table 15. Column order, check constraint and trigger definitions, and other column definitions in the returned sql are irrelevant.

  4. Fail otherwise.

Reference

Clause 1.1.2.1.1 Req 10:

Test Type

Basic

Table Data Values

Test Case ID

/base/core/gpkg_spatial_ref_sys/data_values_default

Test Purpose

Verify that the spatial_ref_sys table contains the required default contents.

Test Method

  1. SELECT srs_id, organization, organization_coordsys_id, description FROM gpkg_spatial_ref_sys WHERE srs_id = -1 returns -1 "NONE" -1 "undefined", AND

  2. SELECT srs_id, organization, organization_coordsys_id, description FROM gpkg_spatial_ref_sys WHERE srs_id = 0 returns 0 "NONE" 0 "undefined", AND

  3. SELECT definition FROM gpkg_spatial_ref_sys WHERE organization IN ("epsg","EPSG") AND organization_coordsys_id 4326

    1. Confirm that this is a valid CRS

  4. Pass if tests 1-3 are met

  5. Fail otherwise

Reference

Clause 1.1.2.1.2 Requirement 11:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/base/core/spatial_ref_sys/data_values_required

Test Purpose

Verify that the spatial_ref_sys table contains rows to define all srs_id values used by features and tiles in a GeoPackage.

Test Method

  1. SELECT DISTINCT gc.srs_id, srs.srs_id FROM gpkg_contents AS gc LEFT OUTER JOIN gpkg_spatial_ref_sys AS srs ON srs.srs_id = gc.srs_id WHERE gc.data_type IN (tiles, features)

  2. Pass if no returned srs.srs_id values are NULL.

  3. Fail otherwise

Reference

Clause Clause 1.1.2.1.2 Req 12:

Test Type

Capability

A.1.1.3. Contents
A.1.1.3.1. Data

Table Definition

Test Case ID

/base/core/contents/data/table_def

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_contents table exists and has the correct definition.

Test Method

  1. SELECT sql FROM sqlite_master WHERE type = table AND tbl_name = gpkg_contents

  2. Fail if returns an empty result set.

  3. Pass if the column names and column definitions in the returned CREATE TABLE statement, including data type, nullability, default values and primary, foreign and unique key constraints match all of those in the contents of C.2 Table [gpkg_contents_sql]. Column order, check constraint and trigger definitions, and other column definitions in the returned sql are irrelevant.

  4. Fail Otherwise

Reference

Clause 1.1.3.1.1 Req 13:

Test Type

Basic

Table Data Values

Test Case ID

/base/core/contents/data/data_values_table_name

Test Purpose

Verify that the table_name column values in the gpkg_contents table are valid.

Test Method

  1. SELECT DISTINCT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE table_name NOT IN (SELECT name FROM sqlite_master)

  2. Fail if there are any results

  3. Pass otherwise.

Reference

Clause 1.1.3.1.2 Req 14:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/base/core/contents/data/data_values_last_change

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_contents table last_change column values are in ISO 8601 [29]format containing a complete date plus UTC hours, minutes, seconds and a decimal fraction of a second, with a Z ("zulu") suffix indicating UTC.

Test Method

  1. SELECT last_change from gpkg_contents.

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set.

  3. For each row from step 1

    1. Fail if format of returned value does not match yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.hhhZ

  4. Pass if no fails.

Reference

Clause 1.1.3.1.2 Req 15:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/base/core/contents/data/data_values_srs_id

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_contents table srs_id column values reference gpkg_spatial_ref_sys srs_id column values.

Test Method

  1. PRAGMA foreign_key_check(gpkg_contents)

  2. Fail if does not return an empty result set

Reference

Clause 1.1.3.1.2 Req 16:

Test Type

Capability

A.2. Options

Test Case ID

/opt/valid_geopackage

Test Purpose

Verify that a GeoPackage contains a features or tiles table and gpkg_contents table row describing it.

Test Method

  1. SELECT COUNT(*) FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type IN (tiles, features)

  2. Pass if result > 0

  3. Fail otherwise

Reference

Clause 2 Req 17:

Test Type

Capability

A.2.1. Features

Note: Some of these tests require a spatial engine or custom code beyond simple SQL. These tests are marked with a *.

A.2.1.1. Simple Features SQL Introduction
A.2.1.2. Contents
A.2.1.2.1. Data

Contents Table Feature Row

Test Case ID

/opt/features/contents/data/features_row

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_contents table_name value table exists, and is apparently a feature table for every row with a data_type column value of "features"

Test Method

  1. Execute test /opt/features/vector_features/data/feature_table_integer_primary_key

Reference

Clause 2.1.2.1.1 Req 18:

Test Type

Capability

A.2.1.3. Geometry Encoding
A.2.1.3.1. Data

BLOB Format

Test Case ID

/opt/features/geometry_encoding/data/blob

Test Purpose

Verify that geometries stored in feature table geometry columns are encoded in the StandardGeoPackageBinary format.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name AS tn, column_name AS cn FROM gpkg_geometry_columns WHERE table_name IN (SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = features)

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row from step 1

    1. SELECT cn FROM tn

    2. Not testable if none found

    3. For each cn value from step a

      1. Fail if the first two bytes of each gc are not "GP"

      2. Fail if gc.version_number is not 0

      3. Fail if gc.flags.GeopackageBinary type != 0

      4. Fail if cn.flags.E is 5-7

      5. *Fail if the geometry is empty but the envelope is not empty (gc.flags.envelope != 0 and envelope values are not NaN)

  4. Pass if no fails

Reference

Clause 2.1.3.1.1 Req 19:

Test Type

Capability

A.2.1.4. SQL Geometry Types
A.2.1.4.1. Data

Core Types

Test Case ID

/opt/features/geometry_encoding/data/core_types_existing_sparse_data

Test Purpose

Verify that existing basic simple feature geometries are stored in valid GeoPackageBinary format encodings.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_geometry_columns

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. SELECT table_name AS tn, column_name AS cn FROM gpkg_geometry_columns WHERE table_name IN (SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = features),

  4. Fail if returns an empty result set

  5. For each row from step 3

    1. SELECT cn FROM tn;

    2. For each row from step a, if bytes 2-5 of cn.wkb as uint32 in endianness of gc.wkb byte 1of cn from #1 are a geometry type value from Annex G Table 42, then

      1. Log cn.header values, wkb endianness and geometry type

      2. *If cn.wkb is not correctly encoded per ISO 13249-3 clause 5.1.46 then log fail

      3. Otherwise log pass

  6. Pass if log contanins pass and no fails

Reference

Clause 2.1.4.1.1 Req 20:

Test Type

Capability

A.2.1.5. Geometry Columns
A.2.1.5.1. Data

Table Definition

Test Case ID

/opt/features/geometry_columns/data/table_def

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_geometry_columns table exists and has the correct definition.

Test Method

  1. PRAGMA table_info(gpkg_geometry_columns)

  2. Fail if returns an empty result set.

  3. Fail if the columns described in [gpkg_geometry_columns_cols] are missing or have non-matching definitions. Column order and other column definitions in the returned sql are irrelevant. Primary key constraints are as per [gpkg_geometry_columns_sql].

  4. Pass otherwise.

Reference

Clause 2.1.5.1.1 Req 21:

Test Type

Basic

Table Data Values

Test Case ID

/opt/features/geometry_columns/data/data_values_geometry_columns

Test Purpose

Verify that gpkg_geometry_columns contains one row record for each geometry column in each vector feature user data table.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = 'features'

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = 'features' AND table_name NOT IN (SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_geometry_columns)

  4. Fail if result set is not empty

Reference

Clause 2.1.5.1.2 Req 22:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/features/geometry_columns/data/data_values_table_name

Test Purpose

Verify that the table_name column values in the gpkg_geometry_columns table are valid.

Test Method

  1. PRAGMA foreign_key_list(gpkg_geometry_columns);

  2. Fail if there is no row designating table_name as a foreign key to table_name in gpkg_contents

Reference

Clause 2.1.5.1.2 Req 23:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/features/geometry_columns/data/data_values_column_name

Test Purpose

Verify that the column_name column values in the gpkg_geometry_columns table are valid.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name, column_name FROM gpkg_geometry_columns

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row from step 1

    1. PRAGMA table_info(table_name)

    2. Fail if gpkg_geometry_columns.column_name value does not equal a name column value returned by PRAGMA table_info.

  4. Pass if no fails.

Reference

Clause 2.1.5.1.2 Req 24:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/features/geometry_columns/data/data_values_geometry_type_name

Test Purpose

Verify that the geometry_type_name column values in the gpkg_geometry_columns table are valid.

Test Method

  1. SELECT DISTINCT geometry_type_name from gpkg_geometry_columns

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row from step 1

    1. Fail if a returned geometry_type_name value is not in Table 31 in Annex G

  4. Pass if no fails.

Reference

Clause 2.1.5.1.2 Req 25:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/features/geometry_columns/data/data_values_srs_id

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_geometry_columns table srs_id column values are valid.

Test Method

  1. PRAGMA foreign_key_check(gpkg_geometry_columns)

  2. Fail if returns any rows with a fourth column foreign key index value of 0

Reference

Clause 2.1.5.1.2 Req 26:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/features/geometry_columns/data/data_values_z

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_geometry_columns table z column values are valid.

Test Method

  1. SELECT z FROM gpkg_geometry_columns

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. SELECT z FROM gpkg_geometry_columns WHERE z NOT IN (0,1,2)

  4. Fail if does not return an empty result set

  5. Pass otherwise.

Reference

Clause 2.1.5.1.2 Req 27:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/features/geometry_columns/data/data_values_m

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_geometry_columns table m column values are valid.

Test Method

  1. SELECT m FROM gpkg_geometry_columns

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. SELECT m FROM gpkg_geometry_columns WHERE m NOT IN (0,1,2)

  4. Fail if does not return an empty result set

  5. Pass otherwise.

Reference

Clause 2.1.5.1.2 Req 28:

Test Type

Capability

A.2.1.6. Vector Features User Data Tables
A.2.1.6.1. Data

Table Definition

Test Case ID

/opt/features/vector_features/data/feature_table_integer_primary_key

Test Purpose

Verify that every vector features user data table has an integer primary key.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = features

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row from step 1

    1. PRAGMA table_info(table_name)

    2. Fail if returns an empty result set

    3. Fail if result set does not contain one row where the pk column value is 1 and the not null column value is 1 and the type column value is "INTEGER"

    4. SELECT COUNT(*) - COUNT(DISTINCT id) from table_name

    5. Fail if result is nonzero

  4. Pass if no fails.

Reference

Clause 2.1.6.1.1 Req 29:

Test Type

Basic

Test Case ID

/opt/features/vector_features/data/feature_table_one_geometry_column

Test Purpose

Verify that every vector features user data table has one geometry column.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WERE data_type = features

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row table name from step 1

    1. SELECT column_name from gpkg_geometry_columns where table_name = row table name

    2. Fail if returns more than one column name

  4. Pass if no fails

Reference

Clause 2.1.6.1.1 Req 30:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/features/vector_features/data/feature_table_geometry_column_type

Test Purpose

Verify that the declared SQL type of a feature table geometry column is the uppercase geometry type name from Annex G specified by the geometry_type_name column for that column_name and table_name in the gpkg_geometry_columns table.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name, column_name, geometry_type_name table_name FROM gpkg_geometry_columns WHERE table_name IN (SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = features)

  2. For each row selected in (1):

    1. PRAGMA table_info({selected table_name})

    2. Fail if declared type of column_name selected in (1) is not the geometry_type_name selected in (1)

  3. Pass if no fails

Reference

Clause 2.1.6.1.1 Req 31:

Test Type

Capability

Table Data Values

Test Case ID

/opt/features/vector_features/data/data_values_geometry_type

Test Purpose

Verify that the geometry type of feature geometries are of the type or are assignable for the geometry type specified by the gpkg_geometry columns table geometry_type_name column value.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name AS tn, column_name AS cn, geometry_type_name AS gt_name FROM gpkg_geometry_columns WHERE table_name IN (SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = features)

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row from step 1

    1. *Select the set of geometry types in use for the values in cn

    2. For each row actual_type_name from step a

      1. *Determine if each geometry type is assignable to the actual_type_name

      2. Fail if any are not assignable

  4. Pass if no fails

Reference

Clause 2.1.6.1.2 Req 32:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/features/vector_features/data/data_value_geometry_srs_id

Test Purpose

Verify the the srs_id of feature geometries are the srs_id specified for the gpkg_geometry_columns table srs_id column value.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name AS tn, column_name AS cn, srs_id AS gc_srs_id FROM gpkg_geometry_columns WHERE table_name IN (SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents where data_type = features)

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row from step 1

    1. *Select the set of SRIDs in use for the values in cn

    2. For each row from step a

      1. *Fail if any SRID is not equal to gc_srs_id

  4. Pass if no fails

Reference

Clause 2.1.6.1.2 Req 33:

Test Type

Capability

A.2.2. Tiles

A.2.2.1. Contents
A.2.2.1.1. Data

Contents Table – Tiles Row

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/contents/data/tiles_row

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_contents table_name value table exists and is apparently a tiles table for every row with a data_type column value of "tiles".

Test Method

  1. Execute test /opt/tiles/tile_pyramid/data/table_def

Reference

Clause 2.2.2.1.1 Req 34:

Test Type

Capability

A.2.2.2. Zoom Levels
A.2.2.2.1. Data

Zoom Times Two

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/zoom_levels/data/zoom_times_two

Test Purpose

Verify that zoom level pixel sizes for tile matrix user data tables vary by factors of 2 between adjacent zoom levels in the tile matrix metadata table.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = tiles

  2. Not testable if returns empty result set

  3. For each row table_name from step 1

    1. SELECT zoom_level, pixel_x_size, pixel_y_size FROM gpkg_tile_matrix WHERE table_name = selected table name ORDER BY zoom_level ASC

    2. Not testable if returns empty result set, or only one row

    3. Not testable if there are not two rows with adjacent zoom levels

    4. Fail if any pair of rows for adjacent zoom levels have pixel_x_size or pixel_y_size values that differ by other than factors of two

  4. Pass if no fails

Reference

Clause 2.2.3.1.1 Req 35:

Test Type

Capability

A.2.2.3. Tile Encoding PNG
A.2.2.3.1. Data

MIME Type PNG

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/tiles_encoding/data/mime_type_png

Test Purpose

Verify that a tile matrix user data table that contains tile data that is not MIME type "image/jpeg" by default contains tile data in MIME type "image/png".

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name AS tn FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = 'tiles'

  2. For each row tbl_name from step 1

    1. WHEN (SELECT tbl_name FROM sqlite_master WHERE tbl_name = 'gpkg_extensions') = 'gpkg_extensions' THEN (SELECT extension_name FROM gpkg_extensions WHERE table_name = 'tn' AND column_name = 'tile_data') END;

      1. Not testable unless it returns empty result set

    2. SELECT tile_data FROM tn

    3. For each row tile_data from step a

      1. Pass if tile data in MIME type image/jpeg

      2. Pass if tile data in MIME type image/png

      3. Fail if no passes

Reference

Clause 2.2.4.1.1 Req 36:

Test Type

Capability

A.2.2.4. Tile Encoding JPEG
A.2.2.4.1. Data

MIME Type JPEG

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/tiles_encoding/data/mime_type_jpeg

Test Purpose

Verify that a tile matrix user data table that contains tile data that is not MIME type "image/png" by default contains tile data in MIME type "image/jpeg".

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name AS tn FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = tiles

  2. For each row tbl_name from step 1

    1. WHEN (SELECT tbl_name FROM sqlite_master WHERE tbl_name = gpkg_extensions) = gpkg_extensions THEN (SELECT extension_name FROM gpkg_extensions WHERE table_name = tn AND column_name = tile_data) END;

      1. Not testable unless it returns empty result set

    2. SELECT tile_data FROM tn

    3. For each row tile_data from step a

      1. Pass if tile data in MIME type image/jpeg

      2. Pass if tile data in MIME type image/png

      3. Fail if no passes

Reference

Clause 2.2.5.1.1 Req 37:

Test Type

Capability

A.2.2.5. Tile Matrix Set
A.2.2.5.1. Data

Table Definition

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/gpkg_tile_matrix_set/data/table_def

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_tile_matrix_set table exists and has the correct definition.

Test Method

  1. SELECT sql FROM sqlite_master WHERE type = table AND tbl_name = gpkg_tile_matrix_set

  2. Fail if returns an empty result set.

  3. Pass if the column names and column definitions in the returned CREATE TABLE statement in the sql column value, including data type, nullability, default values and primary, foreign and unique key constraints match all of those in the contents of [example_feature_table_sql]. Column order, check constraint and trigger definitions, and other column definitions in the returned sql are irrelevant.

  4. Fail otherwise.

Reference

Clause 2.2.6.1.1 Req 38:

Test Type

Capability

Table Data Values

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/gpkg_tile_matrix_set/data/data_values_table_name

Test Purpose

Verify that values of the gpkg_tile_matrix_set table_name column reference values in the gpkg_contents table_name column.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_tile_matrix_set

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_tile_matrix_set tms WHERE table_name NOT IN (SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents gc WHERE tms.table_name = gc.table_name)

  4. Fail if result set contains any rows

  5. Pass otherwise

Reference

Clause 2.2.6.1.2 Req 39:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/gpkg_tile_matrix_set/data/data_values_row_record

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_tile_matrix_set table contains a row record for each tile pyramid user data table.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name AS <user_data_tiles_table> from gpkg_contents where data_type = tiles

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row from step 1

    1. SELECT sql FROM sqlite_master WHERE type=table AND tbl_name = <user_data_tiles_table>

    2. Fail if returns an empty result set

  4. Pass if no fails

Reference

Clause 2.2.6.1.2 Req 40:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/gpkg_tile_matrix_set/data/data_values_srs_id

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_tile_matrix_set table srs_id column values reference gpkg_spatial_ref_sys srs_id column values.

Test Method

  1. PRAGMA foreign_key_check(gpkg_geometry_columns)

  2. Fail if returns any rows with a fourth column foreign key index value of 1 (gpkg_spatial_ref_sys)

Reference

Clause 2.2.6.1.2 Req 41:

Test Type

Capability

A.2.2.6. Tile Matrix
A.2.2.6.1. Data

Table Definition

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/gpkg_tile_matrix/data/table_def

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_tile_matrix table exists and has the correct definition.

Test Method

  1. SELECT sql FROM sqlite_master WHERE type = 'table' AND tbl_name = 'gpkg_tile_matrix'

  2. Fail if returns an empty result set.

  3. Pass if the column names and column definitions in the returned CREATE TABLE statement in the sql column value, including data type, nullability, default values, primary, and foreign key constraints match all of those in the contents of Annex C Table 23.

  4. Fail otherwise.

Reference

Clause 2.2.7.1.1 Req 42:

Test Type

Basic

Table Data Values

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/gpkg_tile_matrix/data/data_values_table_name

Test Purpose

Verify that values of the gpkg_tile_matrix table_name column reference values in the gpkg_contents table_name column.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_tile_matrix

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_tile_matrix tmm WHERE table_name NOT IN (SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents gc WHERE tmm.table_name = gc.table_name)

  4. Fail if result set contains any rows

  5. Pass otherwise

Reference

Clause 2.2.7.1.2 Req 43:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/gpkg_tile_matrix/data/data_values_zoom_level_rows

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_tile_matrix table contains a row record for each zoom level that contains one or more tiles in each tile pyramid user data table.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name AS <user_data_tiles_table> from gpkg_contents where data_type = tiles

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row from step 1

    1. SELECT DISTINCT gtmm.zoom_level AS gtmm_zoom, udt.zoom_level AS udtt_zoom FROM gpkg_tile_matrix AS gtmm LEFT OUTER JOIN <user_data_tiles_table> AS udtt ON udtt.zoom_level = gtmm.zoom_level AND gtmm.t_table_name = <user_data_tiles_table>

    2. Fail if any gtmm_zoom column value in the result set is NULL

  4. Pass if no fails

Reference

Clause 2.2.7.1.2 Req 44:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/gpkg_tile_matrix/data/data_values_width_height

Test Purpose

Verify that the tile matrix extents in gpkg_tile_matrix_set match the contents of the gpkg_tile_matrix table.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name AS <user_data_tiles_table> from gpkg_contents where data_type = tiles

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row from step 1

    1. SELECT max_x - min_x from gpkg_tile_matrix_set where table_name = <user_data_tiles_table>

    2. SELECT zoom_level, matrix_width * tile_width * pixel_x_size from gpkg_tile_matrix where table_name = <user_data_tiles_table>

    3. SELECT max_y - min_y from gpkg_tile_matrix_set where table_name = <user_data_tiles_table>

    4. SELECT zoom_level, matrix_height * tile_height * pixel_y_size from gpkg_tile_matrix where table_name = <user_data_tiles_table>

    5. Fail if, for any zoom level, the difference for an axis does not equal the product for that axis at that zoom level

  4. Pass if no fails

Reference

Clause 2.2.7.1.2 Req 45:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/gpkg_tile_matrix/data/data_values_zoom_level

Test Purpose

Verify that zoom level column values in the gpkg_tile_matrix table are not negative.

Test Method

  1. SELECT zoom_level FROM gpkg_tile_matrix

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. SELECT min(zoom_level) FROM gpkg_tile_matrix_metadata.

  4. Fail if less than 0.

  5. Pass otherwise.

Reference

Clause 2.2.7.1.2 Req 46:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/gpkg_tile_matrix/data/data_values_matrix_width

Test Purpose

Verify that the matrix_width values in the gpkg_tile_matrix table are valid.

Test Method

  1. SELECT matrix_width FROM gpkg_tile_matrix

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. SELECT min(matrix_width) FROM gpkg_tile_matrix.

  4. Fail if less than 1.

  5. Pass otherwise.

Reference:

Clause 2.2.7.1.2 Req 47:

Test Type:

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/gpkg_tile_matrix/data/data_values_matrix_height

Test Purpose

Verify that the matrix_height values in the gpkg_tile_matrix table are valid.

Test Method

  1. SELECT matrix_height FROM gpkg_tile_matrix

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. SELECT min(matrix_height) FROM gpkg_tile_matrix.

  4. Fail if less than 1.

  5. Pass otherwise.

Reference

Clause 2.2.7.1.2 Req 48:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/gpkg_tile_matrix/data/data_values_tile_width

Test Purpose

Verify that the tile_width values in the gpkg_tile_matrix table are valid.

Test Method

  1. SELECT tile_width FROM gpkg_tile_matrix

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. SELECT min(tile_width) FROM gpkg_tile_matrix.

  4. Fail if less than 1.

  5. Pass otherwise.

Reference

Clause 2.2.7.1.2 Req 49:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/gpkg_tile_matrix/data/data_values_tile_height

Test Purpose

Verify that the tile_height values in the gpkg_tile_matrix table are valid.

Test Method

  1. SELECT tile_height FROM gpkg_tile_matrix

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. SELECT min(tile_height) FROM gpkg_tile_matrix.

  4. Fail if less than 1.

  5. Pass otherwise.

Reference

Clause 2.2.7.1.2 Req 50:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/gpkg_tile_matrix/data/data_values_pixel_x_size

Test Purpose

Verify that the pixel_x_size values in the gpkg_tile_matrix table are valid.

Test Method

  1. SELECT pixel_x_size FROM gpkg_tile_matrix

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. SELECT min(pixel_x_size) FROM gpkg_tile_matrix.

  4. Fail if less than 0.

  5. Pass otherwise.

Reference

Clause 2.2.7.1.2 Req 51:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/gpkg_tile_matrix/data/data_values_pixel_y_size

Test Purpose

Verify that the pixel_y_size values in the gpkg_tile_matrix table are valid.

Test Method

  1. SELECT pixel_y_size FROM gpkg_tile_matrix

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. SELECT min(pixel_y_size) FROM gpkg_tile_matrix.

  4. Fail if less than 0.

  5. Pass otherwise.

Reference

Clause 2.2.7.1.2 Req 52:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/gpkg_tile_matrix/data/data_values_pixel_size_sort

Test Purpose

Verify that the pixel_x_size and pixel_y_size column values for zoom level column values in a gpkg_tile_matrix table sorted in ascending order are sorted in descending order, showing that lower zoom levels are zoomed "out".

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = tiles

  2. Not testable if returns empty result set

  3. For each row table_name from step 1

    1. SELECT zoom_level, pixel_x_size, pixel_y_size from gpkg_tile_matrix WHERE table_name = row table name ORDER BY zoom_level ASC

    2. Not testable if returns empty result set

    3. Fail if pixel_x_sizes are not sorted in descending order

    4. Fail if pixel_y_sizes are not sorted in descending order

  4. Pass if testable and no fails

Reference

Clause 2.2.7.1.2 Req 53:

Test Type

Capability

A.2.2.7. Tile Pyramid User Data
A.2.2.7.1. Data

Table Definition

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/tile_pyramid/data/table_def

Test Purpose

Verify that multiple tile pyramids are stored in different tiles tables with unique names containing the required columns.

Test Method

  1. SELECT COUNT(table_name) FROM gpkg_contents WERE data_type = "tiles"

  2. Not testable if less than 1

  3. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = "tiles"

  4. For each row from step 3

    1. PRAGMA table_info(table_name)

    2. Fail if returns an empty result set

    3. Fail if result set does not contain one row where the pk column value is 1 and the not null column value is 1 and the type column value is "INTEGER"and the name column value is "id"

    4. Fail if result set does not contain four other rows where the name column values are "zoom_level","tile_column","tile_row", and "tile_data".

  5. Pass if no fails

Reference

Clause 2.2.8.1.1 Req 54:

Test Type

Basic

Table Data Values

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/tile_pyramid/data/data_values_zoom_levels

Test Purpose

Verify that the zoom level column values in each tile pyramid user data table are within the range of zoom levels defined by rows in the gpkg_tile_matrix table.

Test Method

  1. SELECT DISTINCT table_name AS <user_data_tiles_table> FROM gpkg_tile_matrix

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row <user_data_tiles_table> from step 1

    1. SELECT zoom_level FROM <user_data_tiles_table>

    2. If result set not empty

      1. SELECT MIN(gtmm.zoom_level) AS min_gtmm_zoom, MAX(gtmm.zoom_level) AS max_gtmm_zoom FROM gpkg_tile_matrix WHERE table_name = <user_data_tiles_table>

      2. SELECT id FROM <user_data_tiles_table> WHERE zoom_level < min_gtmm_zoom

      3. Fail if result set not empty

      4. SELECT id FROM <user_data_tiles_table> WHERE zoom_level > max_gtmm_zoom

      5. Fail if result set not empty

      6. Log pass otherwise

  4. Pass if logged pas and no fails

Reference

Clause 2.2.8.1.2 Req 55:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/tile_pyramid/data/data_values_tile_column

Test Purpose

Verify that the tile_column column values for each zoom level value in each tile pyramid user data table are within the range of columns defined by rows in the gpkg_tile_matrix table.

Test Method

  1. SELECT DISTINCT table_name AS <user_data_tiles_table> FROM gpkg_tile_matrix

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row <user_data_tiles_table> from step 1

    1. SELECT DISTINCT gtmm.zoom_level AS gtmm_zoom, gtmm.matrix_width AS gtmm_width, udt.zoom_level AS udt_zoom, udt.tile_column AS udt_column FROM gpkg_tile_matrix AS gtmm LEFT OUTER JOIN <user_data_tiles_table> AS udt ON udt.zoom_level = gtmm.zoom_level AND gtmm.t_table_name = <user_data_tiles_table> AND (udt_column < 0 OR udt_column > (gtmm_width - 1))

    2. Fail if any udt_column value in the result set is not NULL

    3. Log pass otherwise

  4. Pass if logged pass and no fails

Reference

Clause 2.2.8.1.2 Req 56:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/tiles/tile_pyramid_data/data_values_tile_row

Test Purpose

Verify that the tile_row column values for each zoom level value in each tile pyramid user data table are within the range of rows defined by rows in the gpkg_tile_matrix table.

Test Method

  1. SELECT DISTINCT table_name AS <user_data_tiles_table> FROM gpkg_tile_matrix

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row <user_data_tiles_table> from step 1

    1. SELECT DISTINCT gtmm.zoom_level AS gtmm_zoom, gtmm.matrix_height AS gtmm_height, udt.zoom_level AS udt_zoom, udt.tile_row AS udt_row FROM gpkg_tile_matrix AS gtmm LEFT OUTER JOIN <user_data_tiles_table> AS udt ON udt.zoom_level = gtmm.zoom_level AND gtmm.t_table_name = '<user_data_tiles_table> ' AND (udt_row < 0 OR udt_row > (gtmm_height - 1))

    2. Fail if any udt_row value in the result set is not NULL

    3. Log pass otherwise

  4. Pass if logged pass and no fails

Reference

Clause 2.2.8.1.2 Req 57:

Test Type

Capability

A.2.3. Extension Mechanism

A.2.3.1. Extensions
A.2.3.1.1. Data

Table Definition

Test Case ID

/opt/extension_mechanism/data/table_def

Test Purpose

Verify that a gpkg_extensions table exists and has the correct definition.

Test Method

  1. SELECT sql FROM sqlite_master WHERE type = table AND tbl_name = gpkg_extensions

  2. Fail if returns an empty result set.

  3. Pass if the column names and column definitions in the returned Create TABLE statement in the sql column value, including data type, nullability, default values and primary, foreign and unique key constraints match all of those in the contents of [extensions_table_definition]. Column order, check constraint and trigger definitions, and other column definitions in the returned sql are irrelevant.

  4. Fail otherwise.

Reference

Clause 2.3.2.1.1 Req 58:

Test Type

Basic

Table Data Values

Test Case ID

/opt/extension_mechanism/data/data_values_for_extensions

Test Purpose

Verify that every extension of a GeoPackage is registered in a row in the gpkg_extensions table

Test Method

  1. Manual inspection

Reference

Clause 2.3.2.1.2 Req 59:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/extension_mechanism/data/data_values_table_name

Test Purpose

Verify that the table_name column values in the gpkg_extensions table are valid.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_extensions;

  2. Not testable if table does not exist or query returns an empty result set.

  3. For each row from step one

    1. Continue if table_name value is NULL.

    2. SELECT COUNT(*) FROM sqlite_master WHERE tbl_name = table_name;

    3. Fail if count = 0.

  4. Pass if no fails.

Reference

Clause 2.3.2.1.2 Req 60:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/extension_mechanism/data/data_values_column_name

Test Purpose

Verify that the column_name column values in the gpkg_extensions table are valid.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name, column_name FROM gpkg_extensions WHERE column_name IS NOT NULL

  2. Pass if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row from step 3

    1. SELECT count(column_name) FROM table_name

      1. Fail if query is invalid, suggesting an invalid column name

    2. Log pass otherwise

  4. Pass if logged pass and no fails.

Reference

Clause 2.3.2.1.2 Req 61:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/extension_mechanism/data/data_values_extension_name

Test Purpose

Verify that the extension_name column values in the gpkg_extensions table are valid.

Test Method

  1. SELECT extension_name FROM gpkg_extensions

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row returned from step 1

    1. Log pass if extension_name is one of those listed in Annex F.

    2. Separate extension_name into <author> and <extension> at the first "_"

    3. Fail if <author> is "gpkg"

    4. Fail if <author> contains characters other than [a-zA-Z0-9]

    5. Fail if <extension> contains characters other than [a-zA-Z0-9_]

    6. Log pass otherwise

  4. Pass if logged pass and no fails.

Reference

Clause 2.3.2.1.2 Req 62:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/extension_mechanism/data/data_values_definition

Test Purpose

Verify that the definition column value contains or references extension documentation

Test Method

  1. SELECT definition FROM gpkg_extensions

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row returned from step 1

    1. Inspect if definition value is not like "Annex %", or "http%" or mailto:% or "Extension Title%"

    2. Fail if definition value does not contain or reference extension documentation

  4. Pass if no fails

Reference

Clause 2.3.2.1.2 Req 63:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/opt/extension_mechanism/data/data_values_scope

Test Purpose

Verify that the scope column value is "read-write" or "write-only"

Test Method

  1. SELECT scope FROM gpkg_extensions

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row returned from step 1

    1. Fail if value is not "read-write" or "write-only"

  4. Pass if no fails

Reference

Clause 2.3.2.1.2 Req 64:

Test Type

Capability

A.2.4. Attributes

A.2.4.1. Contents
A.2.4.1.1. Data

Contents Table – Attributes Row

Test Case ID

/opt/attributes/contents/data/attributes_row

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_contents table_name value table exists and is apparently an attributes table for every row with a data_type column value of "attributes".

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = "attributes"

  2. Not testable if returns empty result set

  3. For each row from step 1

    1. PRAGMA table_info(table_name)

    2. Fail if returns an empty result set

    3. Fail if result set does not contain one row where the pk column value is 1 and the notnull column value is 1 and the type column value is "INTEGER" and the name column value is "id"

  4. Pass if no fails.

Reference

Clause 2.4.2.1.1 Req 64a

Reference

Clause 2.4.3.1.1 Req 64b

Test Type

Capability

Annex B: Background and Context (Normative)

B.1. Background

An open standard non-proprietary platform-independent GeoPackage container for distribution and direct use of all kinds of geospatial data will increase the cross-platform interoperability of geospatial applications and web services. Standard APIs for access and management of GeoPackage data will provide consistent query and update results across such applications and services. Increased interoperability and result consistency will enlarge the potential market for such applications and services, particularly in resource-constrained mobile computing environments like cell phones and tablets. GeoPackages will become the standard containers for "MyGeoData" that are used as a transfer format by users and Geospatial Web Services and a storage format on personal and enterprise devices.

This OGC® GeoPackage Encoding Standard defines a GeoPackage as a self-contained, single-file, cross-platform, serverless, transactional, open source SQLite data container with table definitions, relational integrity constraints, an SQL API exposed via a "C" CLI and JDBC, and manifest tables that together act as an exchange and direct-use format for multiple types of geospatial data including vector features, features with raster attributes and tile matrix pyramids, especially on mobile / hand held devices in disconnected or limited network connectivity environments.

Table formats, definitions of geometry types and metadata tables, relational integrity constraints, and SQL API are interdependent specification facets of the SF-SQL [9][10][11] and SQL-MM (Spatial) [12] standards that serve as normative references for the vector feature portion of this standard.

This standard attempts to support and use relevant raster types, storage table definitions, and metadata from widely adopted implementations and existing standards such as WMTS [16] and ISO metadata [28], to integrate use of rasters as attributes of geospatial features, and to define relational integrity constraints and an SQL API thereon to provide a raster analogy to the SF-SQL and SF-MM data access and data quality assurance capabilities.

Conformance classes for this standard are classified as core (mandatory) and extension (optional). The simple core of an Empty GeoPackage contains two SQL tables.

Future versions of this standard may include requirements for elevation data and routes. Future enhancements to this standard, a future GeoPackage Web Service specification, and modifications to existing OGC Web Service (OWS) specifications to use GeoPackages as exchange formats may allow OWS to support provisioning of GeoPackages throughout an enterprise or information community.

B.2. Document terms and definitions

This document uses the standard terms defined in Subclause 5.3 of [OGC 06-121], which is based on the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. Rules for the structure and drafting of International Standards. In particular, the word "shall" (not "must") is the verb form used to indicate a requirement to be strictly followed to conform to this standard.

For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

Empty GeoPackage

A GeoPackage that contains a gpkg_spatial_ref_sys table, a gpkg_contents table with row record(s) with data_type column values of "features" or "tiles", and corresponding features tables per clause Features and/or tiles tables per clause Tiles where the user data tables per clauses 2.1.6. and 2.2.8 exist but contain no rows.

Extended GeoPackage

A GeoPackage that contains any additional data elements (tables or columns) or SQL constructs (data types, indexes, constraints or triggers) that are not specified in this encoding standard.

geolocate

identify a real-world geographic location

GeoPackage file

a platform-independent SQLite database file that contains GeoPackage data and metadata tables with specified definitions, integrity assertions, format limitations and content constraints.

GeoPackage SQLite Configuration

consists of the SQLite 3 software library and a set of compile- and runtime configurations options.

GeoPackage SQLite Extension

a SQLite loadable extension that MAY provide SQL functions to support spatial indexes and SQL triggers linked to a SQLite library with specified configuration requirements to provide SQL API access to a GeoPackage.

georectified

raster whose pixels have been regularly spaced in a geographic (i.e., latitude / longitude) or projected map coordinate system using ground control points so that any pixel can be geolocated given its grid coordinate and the grid origin, cell spacing, and orientation.

orthorectified

georectified raster that has also been corrected to remove image perspective (camera angle tilt), camera and lens induced distortions, and terrain induced distortions using camera calibration parameters and DEM elevation data to accurately align with real world coordinates, have constant scale, and support direct measurement of distances, angles, and areas.

tile

a rectangular pictorial representation of geographic data, often part of a set of such elements, covering a spatially contiguous extent and sharing similar information content and graphical styling, which can be uniquely defined by a pair of indices for the column and row along with an identifier for the tile matrix.

tile matrix

a collection of tiles for a fixed scale

tile pyramid

a collection of tile matrices defined at different scales

Valid GeoPackage

A GeoPackage that contains features per clause Features and/or tiles per clause Tiles and row(s) in the gpkg_contents table with data_type column values of "features" and/or "tiles" describing the user data tables.

B.3. Conventions

Symbols (and abbreviated terms)

ACID

Atomic, Consistent, Isolated, and Durable

ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange

API

Application Program Interface

BLOB

Binary Large OBject

CLI

Call-Level Interface

COTS

Commercial Off The Shelf

DEM

Digital Elevation Model

GPKG

GeoPackage

GRD

Ground Resolved Distance

EPSG

European Petroleum Survey Group

FK

Foreign Key

IETF

Internet Engineering Task Force

IIRS

Image Interpretability Rating Scale

IRARS

Imagery Resolution Assessments and Reporting Standards (Committee)

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

JDBC

Java Data Base Connectivity

JPEG

Joint Photographics Expert Group (image format)

MIME

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

NIIRS

National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale

OGC

Open Geospatial Consortium

PK

Primary Key

PNG

Portable Network Graphics (image format)

RDBMS

Relational Data Base Management System

RFC

Request For Comments

SQL

Structured Query Language

SRID

Spatial Reference (System) Identifier

UML

Unified Modeling Language

UTC

Coordinated Universal Time

XML

eXtensible Markup Language

1D

One Dimensional

2D

Two Dimensional

3D

Three Dimensional

B.4. Submitting Organizations (Informative)

The following organizations submitted this Encoding Standard to the Open Geospatial Consortium as a Request For Comment (RFC).

  • Envitia

  • Luciad

  • Sigma Bravo

  • The Carbon Project

  • U.S. Army Geospatial Center

  • U.S. National Geospatial Intelligence Agency

B.5. Document contributor contact points (Informative)

All questions regarding this document should be directed to the editor or the contributors:

Table 13. Document contributors
Name Organization Email

Brett Antonides

LNM Solutions

brett.antonides<at>lmnsolutions.com

Kevin Backe

U.S. Army Geospatial Center GASD

Kevin.Backe<at>usace.army.mil

Roger Brackin

Envitia

roger.brackin<at>envitia.com

Chris Clark

Compusult

chrisc<at>compusult.net

Scott Clark

LNM Solutions

scott.clark<at>lmnsolutions.com

David Cray

U.S. Army Geospatial Center GASD

David.Cray<at>usace.army.mil

Paul Daisey

Image Matters

pauld<at>imagemattersllc.com

Nathan P. Frantz

U.S. Army Geospatial Center ERDC

Nathan.P.Frantz<at>usace.army.mil

Alessandro Furieri

Spatialite

a.furieri<at>lqt.it

Randy Gladish

Image Matters

randyg<at>imagemattersllc.com

Eric Gundersen

MapBox

eric<at>mapbox.com

Brad Hards

Sigma Bravo

bhards<at>sigmabravo.com

Jeff Harrison

The Carbon Project

jharrison<at>thecarbonproject.com

Chris Holmes

OpenGeo

cholmes<at>9eo.org

Frederic Houbie

Luciad

frederic.houbie<at>luciad.com

Sean Hogan

Compusult

sean<at>compusult.net

Kirk Jensen

Image Matters

kirkj<at>imagemattersllc.com

(chinese chars not working) Joshua

Feng China University

joshua<at>gis.tw

Terry A. Idol

U.S. National Geospatial Intelligence Agency

Terry.A.Idol<at>nga.mil

Drew Kurry

Digital Globe

dkurry<at>digitalglobe.com

Steven Lander

Reinventing Geospatial

steven.lander<at>rgi-corp.com

Tom MacWright

MapBox

tom<at>mapbox.com

Joan Maso Pau

Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (CREAF)

joan.maso<at>uab.es

Kevin S. Mullane

U.S. Army Geospatial Center GASD

Kevin.S.Mullane<at>usace.army.mil

Brian Osborn

CACI

bosborn<at>caci.com

(chinese chars not working) Yi-Min Huang

Feng China University

niner<at>gis.tw

Andrea Peri

Regione Toscana Italy

andrea.peri<at>regione.toscana.it

Paul Ramsey

OpenGeo

pramsey<at>opengeo.org

Matthew L. Renner

U.S. Army Geospatial Center ERDC

Matthew.L.Renner<at>usace.army.mil

Even Rouault

Mines-Paris

even.rouault<at>mines-paris.org

Keith Ryden

Environmental Systems Research Institute

kryden<at>esri.com

Scott Simmons

CACI

scsimmons<at>caci.com

Ingo Simonis

International Geospatial Services Institute

ingo.simonis<at>igsi.eu

Raj Singh

Open Geospatial Consortium

rsingh<at>opengeospatial.org

Steve Smyth

Open Site Plan

steve<at>opensiteplan.org

Donald V. Sullivan

U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration

donald.v.sullivan<at>nasa.gov

Christopher Tucker

Mapstory

tucker<at>mapstory.org

Benjamin T. Tuttle

U.S. National Geospatial Intelligence Agency

Benjamin.T.Tuttle<at>nga.mil

Pepijn Van Eeckhoudt

Luciad

pepijn.vaneeckhoudt<at>luciad.com

David G. Wesloh

U.S. National Geospatial Intelligence Agency

David.G.Wesloh<at>nga.mil

Jeff Yutzler

Image Matters

jeffy<at>imagemattersllc.com

Eric Zimmerman

U.S. Army Geospatial Center ERDC

Eric.Zimmerman<at>usace.army.mil

B.6. Revision History (Informative)

Table 14. Revision History
Date Rel Editor Paragraph modified Description

2014-07-14

R11

Paul Daisey

1.1.2.1.1

Remove "at a minimum" after "includes" in 2nd paragraph, 1st sentence; conflicts with Clause 1

2014-07-14

R11

Paul Daisey

2.1.4.1.1

Req 20 42in insert space between 42 and in

2014-07-14

R11

Paul Daisey

2.2.8.1.1

Change Table 30 to Table 29

2014-07-14

R11

Paul Daisey

2.5.2.1.1

Change access to accesses in 1st paragraph, 2nd sentence

2014-07-14

R11

Paul Daisey

Annex A, A.3.1.1.1

inAnnex E insert space between in and Annex

2014-07-14

R11

Paul Daisey

Annex A, A.3.1.1.1

43without insert space between 43 and without

2014-07-14

R11

Paul Daisey

Annex B, B.5

Change pepijn.vaneeckhoudt email from gmail to Luciad

2014-07-14

R11

Paul Daisey

Annex B, B.5

Change all "@" to "<at>"

2014-07-14

R11

Paul Daisey

Annex C, C.10

Remove UNIQUE from PK constraint

2014-12-12

R11

Paul Daisey

2.1.1

Add a footnote to "GeometryCollection" description

2014-12-12

R11

Paul Daisey

2.1.6.1.1

Add new Req 30b

2014-12-12

R11

Paul Daisey

Annex A, A.2.1.6.1.1

Add feature_table_geometry_column_type test

2014-12-12

R11

Paul Daisey

2.1.5.1.1

Add "and geometry types" to 1st paragraph 1st sentence

2014-12-12

R11

Paul Daisey

1.1.1.1.4

Add footnote to Req 6

2014-12-12

R11

Paul Daisey

2.1.3.1.1

replace ISO 13249-3 with OGC 06-103r4

2014-12-12

R11

Paul Daisey

2.1.3.1.1

Correct references in footnote 1: [13] becomes [9] and [16] becomes [12]

2014-12-12

R11

Paul Daisey

1.1.1.2.2

Remove "and run" from clause and Req 9

2014-12-12

R11

Paul Daisey

1.1.1.2.2

Remove PRAGMA foreign_keys runtime option from Table 2

2014-12-12

R11

Paul Daisey

Annex A, A.2.2.7.1.1

Change step 2 to "Not testable if less than 1"

2014-12-12

R11

Paul Daisey

Annex A, A.2.2.6.1.1

Remove obsolete provisions (unique, column order, other columns) from step 3

2014-12-12

R11

Paul Daisey

2.1.6.1.2

Add sentences specifying unit of measure determination for geometry Z and M values.

2014-12-12

R11

Paul Daisey

1.1.3.1.1, Table 4

Change description column default value to ''

2014-12-12

R11

Paul Daisey

Annex C, C.7, Table 29

Remove spurious ")" from tile_data column definition

2014-12-12

R11

Paul Daisey

Annex D, D.3, Table 39

Correct ISO 8601 timestamp GLOB expressions

2015-03-16

R11

Scott Simmons

entire document

Minor format corrections

2015-04-27

R11

Joe Brumley

entire document

Minor format corrections for corrigendum

2015-06-10

R12

Brad Hards

2.2.1

Fix typos

2015-06-17

R12

Jeff Yutzler

2.2.6.1.1

Clarify role of bounding box in Tile Matrix Set table https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/102

2015-06-17

R12

Jeff Yutzler

2.2.7.1.2

2015-06-24

R12

Jeff Yutzler

1.1.2.1.2

2015-08-04

R12

Jeff Yutzler

Figures 4, 5, 6

2015-08-04

R12

Jeff Yutzler

Annex I

Update Footnote #18 (JFIF) to T.871 https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/104

2015-08-25

R12

Jeff Yutzler

Whole document

2015-08-25

R12

Jeff Yutzler

Annex B, B.6

2015-08-26

R12

Jeff Yutzler

Annex B, B.6

Fix casing of minIsInclusive, maxIsInclusive, and description https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/130

2015-08-25

R12

Jeff Yutzler

Annex B, B.6

Clarify rules for case sensitivity for views, triggers, constraints https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/131

2015-09-09

R12

Brad Hards

Intro

Fix typos

2015-09-29

R12

Brad Hards

1.1.3.1.1

Fix typos

2015-09-29

R12

Jeff Yutzler

1.1.3.1.1

User-defined tables do not need to have lowercase column names https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/144

2015-10-19

R12

Jeff Yutzler

Annex F, F.4

2015-10-29

R12

Brad Hards

1.1.3.1.1

Fix typos

2015-11-09

R12

Jeff Yutzler

Multiple

Fix typos

2015-11-19

R12

Jeff Yutzler

Multiple

2015-11-26

R12

Jeff Yutzler

Annex F, F.9

2015-11-26

R12

Jeff Yutzler

Annex F

Collapse all extensions into a single annex https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/132

2015-11-26

R12

Jeff Yutzler

Annex F, F.8, F.9

Demote Metadata and Schema sections to extensions https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/147

2015-11-26

R12

Jeff Yutzler

Annex E

2015-11-26

R12

Jeff Yutzler

Annex F, F.10

2015-12-02

R12

Jeff Yutzler

Annex A, Annex F

2015-12-04

R12

Jeff Yutzler

2.3.2.1.2

Update rules for listing extensions https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/175

2015-12-04

R12

Jeff Yutzler

All Annexes

2015-12-26

R12

Brad Hards

2.3.2.1

Fix typos

2015-12-26

R12

Jeff Yutzler

Annex F.9

Make "identifier" unique in Table 42, Table 45 https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/183

2015-12-28

R12

Jeff Yutzler

Annex A.1.1.2

Fix column names in ATS tests

2016-01-20

R12

Jeff Yutzler

1.1.1.1.1

2016-05-08

R13

Jeff Yutzler

1.1.1.1.1

Clarify that GeoPackage header is null terminated https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/pull/209

2016-05-17

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Annex B.11-13

Update UML diagrams to show DATETIME https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/214

2016-07-12

R13

Jeff Yutzler

1.1.3

Rewrite description of gpkg_contents https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/221

2016-07-18

R13

Frederic Houbie

Annex B.2

2016-08-02

R13

Chris Clark

Annex F.9

2016-08-02

R13

Chris Clark

Annex F.10

Correct column name for CRS WKT extension https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/258

2016-08-23

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Annex F.1

2016-08-23

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Annex F.2,4,5

Deprecate extensions F.2, F.4, F.5 https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/235

2016-08-23

R13

Chris Clark

2.2.7.1.2

2016-08-23

R13

Chris Clark

Multiple

2016-09-06

R13

Chris Clark

Annex F.8

Simplify triggers to avoid failures https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/228

2016-09-13

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Annex F.8

2016-09-20

R13

Jeff Yutzler

2.3.2.1.1

Update description for "definition" column https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/241

2016-10-04

R13

Jeff Yutzler

2.4

Adding "attributes" section to describe use of non-spatial data https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/221

2016-10-17

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Multiple

2016-10-17

R13

Jeff Yutzler

1.1.1.1.1, Annex A

Allow for version increments in SQLite header https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/255

2016-10-17

R13

Jeff Yutzler

1.1.1.1.2

2016-10-17

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Annex F.9

Correct min/max_is_inclusive in abstract tests https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/260

2016-10-19

R13

Brian Osborn

1.1.1.1.1

Update application ID

2016-10-19

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Annex F.11

Add elevation extension to standard https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/242

2016-10-20

R13

Jeff Yutzler

2.3.2.1.1

Add to Requirement 58 to clarify rules for extensions

2016-10-24

R13

Jake Molnar

2.2.6.1.2

Fix typo

2016-12-07

R13

Jeff Yutzler

1.1.1.1.1

Rewrite Requirement 2 to use GPKG application_id + user_version

2017-02-27

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Annex A.1.1.1.1

2017-02-27

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Annex A.2.1.6.1

2017-02-27

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Annex A.2.1.3.1

Rewrite ATS for Requirements 19 and 20 (geometry BLOB format) https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/285

2017-02-27

R13

Jeff Yutzler

2.1.5.1.1, Annex A.2.1.5.1

Add "null" column to Table 6, Rewrite ATS for Requirements 21, 23 https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/286

2017-02-27

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Annex A

Removing explicit dependencies on Spatialite in ATS https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/288

2017-02-27

R13

Jeff Yutzler

2.2

Removing tiles stipulation from Requirements 39 and 43 https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/295

2017-03-02

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Multiple

2017-03-06

R13

Jeff Yutzler

1.1.1.2.2

2017-03-13

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Annex A.1.1.2.1

2017-03-13

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Annex A

Rewrite ATS for Requirements 2, 12, 14, 15, 17 https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/308

2017-03-17

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Multiple

Switching to fixed requirements numbers (not auto-generated) https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/314

2017-03-17

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Annex F.10

2017-03-21

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Multiple

Scrubbing document for inappropriate use of "view" https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/301

2017-03-22

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Multiple

2017-04-17

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Anned F.1

Clean up Non-Linear Geometry Types extension https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/347

2017-04-17

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Anned F.7

2017-04-17

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Anned F.3

2017-04-17

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Multiple

Clarifying language on use of extensions, removing Requirement 17 https://github.com/opengeospatial/geopackage/issues/323

2017-04-17

R13

Jeff Yutzler

2.2.1

2017-04-26

R13

Jeff Yutzler

Annex I

B.7. Changes to the OGC® Abstract Specification

The OGC® Abstract Specification does not require changes to accommodate this OGC® standard.

B.8. Changes to OGC® Implementation Standards

None at present.

B.9. Potential Future Work (Informative)

Future versions of this standard MAY do the following: * investigate GeoPackage implementation on SQLite version 4 [B25]. * include requirements for elevation data and routes. * Future enhancements to this standard, a future GeoPackage Web Service specification and modifications to existing OGC Web Service (OWS) specifications to use GeoPackages as exchange formats MAY allow OWS to support provisioning of GeoPackages throughout an enterprise. * include additional raster / image formats, including fewer restrictions on the image/tiff format. * include additional SQL API routines for interrogation and conversion of raster / image BLOBs. * add infrastructure to the metadata tables such as a temporal_columns table that refers to the time properties of data records. * specify a streaming synchronization protocol for GeoPackage as part of a future GeoPackage Web Service specification, and/or a future version of the GeoPackage and/or Web Synchronization Service specification(s). * address symbology and styling information. * include geographic / geodesic geometry types. * create a GeoPackage Abstract Object Model to support data encodings other than SQL. * add UTFGrid support.

Future versions of this standard and/or one for a GeoPackage Web Service MAY do the following: * address utilities for importing and exporting vector, raster and tile data in various formats. * address encryption of GeoPackages and/or individual tables or column values.

B.10. UML Notation

The diagrams that appear in this standard are presented using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) [B14] static structure diagrams. The UML notations used in this standard for RDBMS tables in a GeoPackage are described in UML Notation for RDBMS Tables below.

umlnotationforrdbmstables
Figure 3. UML Notation for RDBMS Tables

In this standard, the following two stereotypes of UML classes are used to represent RDBMS tables:

  1. <<table>> An instantiation of a UML class as an RDMBS table.

  2. <<column>> An instantiation of a UML attribute as an RDBMS table column.

In this standard, the following standard data types are used for RDBMS columns:

  1. NULL – The value is a NULL value.

  2. INTEGER – A signed integer, stored in 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, or 8 bytes depending on the magnitude of the value

  3. REAL – The value is a floating point value, stored as an 8-byte IEEE floating point number.

  4. TEXT – A sequence of characters, stored using the database encoding (UTF-8, UTF-16BE or UTF-16LE).

  5. BLOB – The value is a blob of data, stored exactly as it was input.

  6. NONE – The value is a Date / Time Timestamp

B.11. GeoPackage Tables Detailed Diagram

geopackage uml
Figure 4. GeoPackage Tables Details

B.12. GeoPackage Minimal Tables for Features Diagram

geopackage features
Figure 5. GeoPackage Minimal Tables for Features

B.13. GeoPackage Minimal Tables for Tiles Diagram

geopackage tiles
Figure 6. GeoPackage Minimal Tables for Tiles

Annex C: Table Definition SQL (Normative)

C.1. gpkg_spatial_ref_sys

gpkg_spatial_ref_sys Table Definition SQL
CREATE TABLE gpkg_spatial_ref_sys (
  srs_name TEXT NOT NULL,
  srs_id INTEGER NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
  organization TEXT NOT NULL,
  organization_coordsys_id INTEGER NOT NULL,
  definition  TEXT NOT NULL,
  description TEXT
);
SQL/MM View of gpkg_spatial_ref_sys Definition SQL (Informative)
CREATE VIEW st_spatial_ref_sys AS
  SELECT
    srs_name,
    srs_id,
    organization,
    organization_coordsys_id,
    definition,
    description
  FROM gpkg_spatial_ref_sys;
SF/SQL View of gpkg_spatial_ref_sys Definition SQL (Informative)
CREATE VIEW spatial_ref_sys AS
  SELECT
    srs_id AS srid,
    organization AS auth_name,
    organization_coordsys_id AS auth_srid,
    definition AS srtext
  FROM gpkg_spatial_ref_sys;

C.2. gpkg_contents

gpkg_contents Table Definition SQL
CREATE TABLE gpkg_contents (
  table_name TEXT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
  data_type TEXT NOT NULL,
  identifier TEXT UNIQUE,
  description TEXT DEFAULT '',
  last_change DATETIME NOT NULL DEFAULT (strftime('%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%fZ','now')),
  min_x DOUBLE,
  min_y DOUBLE,
  max_x DOUBLE,
  max_y DOUBLE,
  srs_id INTEGER,
  CONSTRAINT fk_gc_r_srs_id FOREIGN KEY (srs_id) REFERENCES gpkg_spatial_ref_sys(srs_id)
);

C.3. gpkg_geometry_columns

gpkg_geometry_columns Table Definition SQL
CREATE TABLE gpkg_geometry_columns (
  table_name TEXT NOT NULL,
  column_name TEXT NOT NULL,
  geometry_type_name TEXT NOT NULL,
  srs_id INTEGER NOT NULL,
  z TINYINT NOT NULL,
  m TINYINT NOT NULL,
  CONSTRAINT pk_geom_cols PRIMARY KEY (table_name, column_name),
  CONSTRAINT uk_gc_table_name UNIQUE (table_name),
  CONSTRAINT fk_gc_tn FOREIGN KEY (table_name) REFERENCES gpkg_contents(table_name),
  CONSTRAINT fk_gc_srs FOREIGN KEY (srs_id) REFERENCES gpkg_spatial_ref_sys (srs_id)
);
SQL/MM View of gpkg_geometry_columns Definition SQL (Informative)
CREATE VIEW st_geometry_columns AS
  SELECT
    table_name,
    column_name,
    "ST_" || geometry_type_name,
    g.srs_id,
    srs_name
  FROM gpkg_geometry_columns as g JOIN gpkg_spatial_ref_sys AS s
  WHERE g.srs_id = s.srs_id;
SF/SQL VIEW of gpkg_geometry_columns Definition SQL (Informative)
CREATE VIEW geometry_columns AS
  SELECT
    table_name AS f_table_name,
    column_name AS f_geometry_column,
    code4name (geometry_type_name) AS geometry_type,
    2 + (CASE z WHEN 1 THEN 1 WHEN 2 THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) + (CASE m WHEN 1 THEN 1 WHEN 2 THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS coord_dimension,
    srs_id AS srid
  FROM gpkg_geometry_columns;
Implementer must provide code4name(geometry_type_name) SQL function

C.4. sample_feature_table (Informative)

sample_feature_table Table Definition SQL (Informative)
CREATE TABLE sample_feature_table (
  id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY AUTOINCREMENT NOT NULL,
  geometry GEOMETRY,
  text_attribute TEXT,
  real_attribute REAL,
  boolean_attribute BOOLEAN,
  raster_or_photo BLOB
);

C.5. gpkg_tile_matrix_set

gpkg_tile_matrix_set Table Creation SQL
CREATE TABLE gpkg_tile_matrix_set (
  table_name TEXT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
  srs_id INTEGER NOT NULL,
  min_x DOUBLE NOT NULL,
  min_y DOUBLE NOT NULL,
  max_x DOUBLE NOT NULL,
  max_y DOUBLE NOT NULL,
  CONSTRAINT fk_gtms_table_name FOREIGN KEY (table_name) REFERENCES gpkg_contents(table_name),
  CONSTRAINT fk_gtms_srs FOREIGN KEY (srs_id) REFERENCES gpkg_spatial_ref_sys (srs_id)
);

C.6. gpkg_tile_matrix

gpkg_tile_matrix Table Creation SQL
CREATE TABLE gpkg_tile_matrix (
  table_name TEXT NOT NULL,
  zoom_level INTEGER NOT NULL,
  matrix_width INTEGER NOT NULL,
  matrix_height INTEGER NOT NULL,
  tile_width INTEGER NOT NULL,
  tile_height INTEGER NOT NULL,
  pixel_x_size DOUBLE NOT NULL,
  pixel_y_size DOUBLE NOT NULL,
  CONSTRAINT pk_ttm PRIMARY KEY (table_name, zoom_level),
  CONSTRAINT fk_tmm_table_name FOREIGN KEY (table_name) REFERENCES gpkg_contents(table_name)
);
EXAMPLE: gpkg_tile_matrix Insert Statement (Informative)
INSERT INTO gpkg_tile_matrix VALUES (
  "sample_tile_pyramid",
  0,
  1,
  1,
  512,
  512,
  2.0,
  2.0
);

C.7. sample_tile_pyramid (Informative)

EXAMPLE: tiles table Create Table SQL (Informative)
CREATE TABLE sample_tile_pyramid (
  id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY AUTOINCREMENT NOT NULL,
  zoom_level INTEGER NOT NULL,
  tile_column INTEGER NOT NULL,
  tile_row INTEGER NOT NULL,
  tile_data BLOB NOT NULL,
  UNIQUE (zoom_level, tile_column, tile_row)
)
EXAMPLE: tiles table Insert Statement (Informative)
INSERT INTO sample_matrix_pyramid VALUES (
  1,
  1,
  1,
  1,
  "BLOB VALUE"
)

C.8. gpkg_extensions

gpkg_extensions Table Definition SQL
CREATE TABLE gpkg_extensions (
  table_name TEXT,
  column_name TEXT,
  extension_name TEXT NOT NULL,
  definition TEXT NOT NULL,
  scope TEXT NOT NULL,
  CONSTRAINT ge_tce UNIQUE (table_name, column_name, extension_name)
);

C.9. sample_attributes_table (Informative)

EXAMPLE: Attributes table Create Table SQL (Informative)
CREATE TABLE sample_attributes (
  id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY AUTOINCREMENT NOT NULL,
  text_attribute TEXT,
  real_attribute REAL,
  boolean_attribute BOOLEAN,
  raster_or_photo BLOB
)
EXAMPLE: attributes table Insert Statement (Informative)
INSERT INTO sample_attributes(text_attribute, real_attribute, boolean_attribute, raster_or_photo) VALUES (
  "place",
  1,
  true,
  "BLOB VALUE"
)

Annex D: Trigger Definition SQL (Informative)

D.1. gpkg_tile_matrix

Table 15. gpkg_tile_matrix Trigger Definition SQL
CREATE TRIGGER 'gpkg_tile_matrix_zoom_level_insert'
BEFORE INSERT ON 'gpkg_tile_matrix'
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'insert on table ''gpkg_tile_matrix'' violates constraint: zoom_level cannot be less than 0')
WHERE (NEW.zoom_level < 0);
END

CREATE TRIGGER 'gpkg_tile_matrix_zoom_level_update'
BEFORE UPDATE of zoom_level ON 'gpkg_tile_matrix'
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'update on table ''gpkg_tile_matrix'' violates constraint: zoom_level cannot be less than 0')
WHERE (NEW.zoom_level < 0);
END

CREATE TRIGGER 'gpkg_tile_matrix_matrix_width_insert'
BEFORE INSERT ON 'gpkg_tile_matrix'
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'insert on table ''gpkg_tile_matrix'' violates constraint: matrix_width cannot be less than 1')
WHERE (NEW.matrix_width < 1);
END

CREATE TRIGGER 'gpkg_tile_matrix_matrix_width_update'
BEFORE UPDATE OF matrix_width ON 'gpkg_tile_matrix'
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'update on table ''gpkg_tile_matrix'' violates constraint: matrix_width cannot be less than 1')
WHERE (NEW.matrix_width < 1);
END

CREATE TRIGGER 'gpkg_tile_matrix_matrix_height_insert'
BEFORE INSERT ON 'gpkg_tile_matrix'
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'insert on table ''gpkg_tile_matrix'' violates constraint: matrix_height cannot be less than 1')
WHERE (NEW.matrix_height < 1);
END

CREATE TRIGGER 'gpkg_tile_matrix_matrix_height_update'
BEFORE UPDATE OF matrix_height ON 'gpkg_tile_matrix'
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'update on table ''gpkg_tile_matrix'' violates constraint: matrix_height cannot be less than 1')
WHERE (NEW.matrix_height < 1);
END

CREATE TRIGGER 'gpkg_tile_matrix_pixel_x_size_insert'
BEFORE INSERT ON 'gpkg_tile_matrix'
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'insert on table ''gpkg_tile_matrix'' violates constraint: pixel_x_size must be greater than 0')
WHERE NOT (NEW.pixel_x_size > 0);
END

CREATE TRIGGER 'gpkg_tile_matrix_pixel_x_size_update'
BEFORE UPDATE OF pixel_x_size ON 'gpkg_tile_matrix'
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'update on table ''gpkg_tile_matrix'' violates constraint: pixel_x_size must be greater than 0')
WHERE NOT (NEW.pixel_x_size > 0);
END

CREATE TRIGGER 'gpkg_tile_matrix_pixel_y_size_insert'
BEFORE INSERT ON 'gpkg_tile_matrix'
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'insert on table ''gpkg_tile_matrix'' violates constraint: pixel_y_size must be greater than 0')
WHERE NOT (NEW.pixel_y_size > 0);
END

CREATE TRIGGER 'gpkg_tile_matrix_pixel_y_size_update'
BEFORE UPDATE OF pixel_y_size ON 'gpkg_tile_matrix'
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'update on table ''gpkg_tile_matrix'' violates constraint: pixel_y_size must be greater than 0')
WHERE NOT (NEW.pixel_y_size > 0);
END

D.2. sample_feature_table

Table 16. EXAMPLE: features table Trigger Definition SQL
CREATE TRIGGER "sample_feature_table_real_insert"
BEFORE INSERT ON "sample_feature_table"
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'insert on table ''sample_feature_table''
violates constraint: real_attribute must be greater than 0')
WHERE NOT (NEW.real_attribute > 0);
END

CREATE TRIGGER "sample_feature_table_real_update"
BEFORE UPDATE OF "real_attribute" ON "sample_feature_table"
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE (ABORT, 'update of ''real_attribute'' on table
''sample_feature_table'' violates constraint: real_attribute value
must be > 0')
WHERE NOT (NEW.real_attribute > 0);
END

where <t> and <c> are replaced with the names of the feature table and geometry column being inserted or updated.

D.3. sample_tile_pyramid

Table 17. tiles table Trigger Definition SQL
CREATE TRIGGER "sample_tile_pyramid_zoom_insert"
BEFORE INSERT ON "sample_tile_pyramid"
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'insert on table ''sample_tile_pyramid'' violates constraint: zoom_level not specified for table in gpkg_tile_matrix')
WHERE NOT (NEW.zoom_level IN (SELECT zoom_level FROM gpkg_tile_matrix WHERE table_name = 'sample_tile_pyramid')) ;
END

CREATE TRIGGER "sample_tile_pyramid_zoom_update"
BEFORE UPDATE OF zoom_level ON "sample_tile_pyramid"
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'update on table ''sample_tile_pyramid'' violates constraint: zoom_level not specified for table in gpkg_tile_matrix')
WHERE NOT (NEW.zoom_level IN (SELECT zoom_level FROM gpkg_tile_matrix WHERE table_name = 'sample_tile_pyramid')) ;
END

CREATE TRIGGER "sample_tile_pyramid_tile_column_insert"
BEFORE INSERT ON "sample_tile_pyramid"
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'insert on table ''sample_tile_pyramid'' violates constraint: tile_column cannot be < 0')
WHERE (NEW.tile_column < 0) ;
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'insert on table ''sample_tile_pyramid'' violates constraint: tile_column must by < matrix_width specified for table and zoom level in gpkg_tile_matrix')
WHERE NOT (NEW.tile_column < (SELECT matrix_width FROM gpkg_tile_matrix WHERE table_name = 'sample_tile_pyramid' AND zoom_level = NEW.zoom_level));
END

CREATE TRIGGER "sample_tile_pyramid_tile_column_update"
BEFORE UPDATE OF tile_column ON "sample_tile_pyramid"
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'update on table ''sample_tile_pyramid'' violates constraint: tile_column cannot be < 0')
WHERE (NEW.tile_column < 0) ;
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'update on table ''sample_tile_pyramid'' violates constraint: tile_column must by < matrix_width specified for table and zoom level in gpkg_tile_matrix')
WHERE NOT (NEW.tile_column < (SELECT matrix_width FROM gpkg_tile_matrix WHERE table_name = 'sample_tile_pyramid' AND zoom_level = NEW.zoom_level));
END

CREATE TRIGGER "sample_tile_pyramid_tile_row_insert"
BEFORE INSERT ON "sample_tile_pyramid"
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'insert on table ''sample_tile_pyramid'' violates constraint: tile_row cannot be < 0')
WHERE (NEW.tile_row < 0) ;
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'insert on table ''sample_tile_pyramid'' violates constraint: tile_row must by < matrix_height specified for table and zoom level in gpkg_tile_matrix')
WHERE NOT (NEW.tile_row < (SELECT matrix_height FROM gpkg_tile_matrix WHERE table_name = 'sample_tile_pyramid' AND zoom_level = NEW.zoom_level));
END

CREATE TRIGGER "sample_tile_pyramid_tile_row_update"
BEFORE UPDATE OF tile_row ON "sample_tile_pyramid"
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'update on table ''sample_tile_pyramid'' violates constraint: tile_row cannot be < 0')
WHERE (NEW.tile_row < 0) ;
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'update on table ''sample_tile_pyramid'' violates constraint: tile_row must by < matrix_height specified for table and zoom level in gpkg_tile_matrix')
WHERE NOT (NEW.tile_row < (SELECT matrix_height FROM gpkg_tile_matrix WHERE table_name = 'sample_tile_pyramid' AND zoom_level = NEW.zoom_level));
END

Annex E: GeoPackage Extension Template (Informative)

Extension Title

Title of the Extension

Introduction

Description of extension

Extension Author

Author of extension, author_name.

Extension Name or Template

Name of the extension or definition of the template to create the name of extensions that should be used in gpkg_extensions

Extension Type

"Extension of Existing Requirement in Clause(s) XXX" or "New Requirement Dependent on Clause(s) YYY"

Applicability

Tables and/or columns on which this extension may be applied

Scope

Read-write or write-only with clarification if necessary

Requirements

Definition of extension and interdependencies with other extensions if any.

GeoPackage

Definition of extension data or MIME type(s)

Definition of extension tables or table templates

Definition of triggers or trigger templates

GeoPackage SQLite Configuration

Definition of SQLite configuration settings

Setting compile or runtime Option Shall / Not (Value) Discussion

GeoPackage SQLite Extension

Definition of SQL functions

SQL Function Description Use

foo(bar, baz) : datatype

Returns r when w

Abstract Test Suite

All test cases required to verify conformance to this extension.

Examples (Informative)

Any example or samples demonstrating the extension in use.

Annex F: Registered Extensions (Normative)

This clause specifies requirements for GeoPackage extensions. Definitions of those extensions are in the form specified by the template in GeoPackage Extension Template (Informative).

Extension Name Content Type

GeoPackage Non-Linear Geometry Types

features

User Defined Geometry Types Extension of GeoPackageBinary Geometry Encoding

features

RTree Spatial Indexes

features

Geometry Type Triggers

features

Geometry SRS ID Triggers

features

Zoom Other Intervals

tiles

Tiles Encoding WebP

tiles

Metadata

general

Schema

features

WKT for Coordinate Reference Systems

spatial reference systems

Tiled Gridded Elevation Data

tiled gridded elevation data

F.1. GeoPackage Non-Linear Geometry Types

Introduction

This extension of clause SQL Geometry Types defines additional geometry types.

Clause 2.1.4 of the GeoPackage Version 1 Encoding Standard specifies support for the Geometry, Point, LineString, Polygon, MultiPoint, MultiLineString, MultiPolygon, and GeomCollection geometry types in the GeoPackageBinary geometry encoding format specified in clause 2.1.3. This extension specifies support for the additional CircularString, CompoundCurve, CurvePolygon, MultiCurve, MultiSurface, Curve, and Surface geometry types in the GeoPackage Binary geometry encoding format using the codes from Geometry Type Codes (Extension).

Extension Author

GeoPackage SWG, author_name gpkg

Extension Name or Template

Extension names are constructed from the gpkg_geom_<gname> template where <gname> is the uppercase name of the extension geometry type from Geometry Type Codes (Extension).

Extension Type

Extension of Existing Requirement in clause SQL Geometry Types

Applicability

This extension applies to any column specified in the gpkg_geometry_columns table.

Scope

Read-write

Requirements

GeoPackage
Requirement 65

(extends GPKG-25) The geometry_type_name value in a gpkg_geometry_columns row MAY be one of the uppercase extended non-linear geometry type names specified in Geometry Types (Normative).

Requirement 66

The GeoPackageBinary geometry encoding format specified in clause Geometry Encoding SHALL be used to encode non-linear geometry types using the type codes in Geometry Types (Normative) table Geometry Type Codes (Extension).

Requirement 67

An extension name to specify a feature geometry extension type SHALL be defined for the "gpkg" author name using the "gpkg_geom_<gname>" template where <gname> is the uppercase name of the extension geometry type from Geometry Types (Normative) used in a GeoPackage.

Requirement 68

A GeoPackage that contains a gpkg_geometry_columns table or updateable view with row records that specify extension geometry_type_name column values SHALL contain a gpkg_extensions table that contains row records with table_name and column_name values from the gpkg_geometry_columns row records that identify extension type uses, and extension_name column values for each of those geometry types constructed per the previous requirement [extension_geometry_types_extensions_name].

GeoPackage SQLite Configuration

None

GeoPackage SQLite Extension
Requirement 69

SQL functions that operate on GeoPackageBinary geometries as specified in other extensions SHALL operate correctly on the non-linear geometries specified in this extension.

Abstract Test Suite

GeoPackage Extension Types

Test Case ID

/extensions/geometry_types/data_values_geometry_type_name

Test Purpose

Verify that only allowed geometry types (including extended non-linear geometry types) are in use.

Test Method

  1. Run test /opt/features/geometry_columns/data/data_values_geometry_type_name, but the values in 3a may also include the values from Table 32 in Annex G.

Reference

Annex F.1 Req 65:

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/extensions/geometry_types/all_types_test_data

Test Purpose

Verify that geometries non-linear geometry types are stored in valid GeoPackageBinary format encodings.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_geometry_columns

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. SELECT table_name AS tn, column_name AS cn FROM gpkg_geometry_columns WHERE table_name IN (SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = features),

  4. Fail if returns an empty result set

  5. For each row from step 3

    1. SELECT cn FROM tn;

    2. For each row from step a, log fail if GeoPackageBinary "X" type flag is 1

    3. For each row from step a, if bytes 2-5 of cn.wkb as uint32 in endianness of gc.wkb byte 1of cn from #1 are a geometry type value from Annex G Table 43, then

    4. Log cn.header values, wkb endianness and geometry type ii. If cn.wkb is not correctly encoded per ISO 13249-3 clause 5.1.46 then log fail iii. If cn.flags.E is 1 - 4 and some cn.wkbx is outside of cn.envelope.minx,maxx then log fail iv. If cn.flags.E is 1 - 4 and some gc.wkby is outside of cn.envelope.miny,maxy then log fail

    5. If cn.flags.E is 2,4 and some gc.wkb.z is outside of cnenvelope.minz,maxz then log fail vi. If cn.flags.E is 3,4 and some gc.wkb.m is outside of cn.envelope.minm,maxm then log fail vii. If cn.flags.E is 5-7 then log fail viii. Otherwise log pass

  6. Log pass if log contains pass and no fails

Reference

Annex F.1 Req 66:

Test Type

Capability

Extensions Name

Test Case ID

/extensions/geometry_types/extension_name

Test Purpose

Verify that an extension name in the form gpkg_geom_<gname> is defined for each <gname> extension geometry type from Annex G used in a GeoPackage.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name, column_name FROM gpkg_geometry_columns WHERE table_name IN (SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type == features))

  2. Not testable if result set is empty

  3. For each row result set table_name, column_name from step 3

    1. SELECT result_set_column_name FROM result_set_table_name

    2. For each geometry column value from step a

      1. If the first two bytes of each geometry column value are "GP", then

        1. /opt/extension_mechanism/extensions/data/table_def

        2. Fail if failed

        3. SELECT ST_GeometryType(geometry column value) AS <gtype>;

        4. SELECT extension_name FROM gpkg_extensions WERE table_name = result_set_table_name AND column_name = result_set_column_name AND extension_name = 'gpkg_geom_' || <gtype>

          1. Fail if result set is empty

          2. Log pass otherwise

  4. Pass if logged pass and no fails

Reference

Annex F.1 Req 67:

Test Type

Basic

Extensions Row

Test Case ID

/extensions/geometry_types/extension_row

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_extensions table contains a row with an extension_name in the form gpkg_geom_<gname> for each table_name and column_name in the gpkg_geometry_columns table with a <gname> geometry_type_name.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name, column_name, geometry_type_name FROM gpkg_geometry_columns

  2. Not testable if no results

  3. For each result

    1. If geometry_type_name is an extended geometry type

      1. SELECT extension_name FROM gpkg_extensions WHERE table_name = {table_name} AND column_name = '{column_name}"

      2. Fail if result set does not contain a row with an extension_name of gpkg_geom_{geometry_type_name}

  4. Pass if no fails

Reference

Annex F.1 Req 68:

Test Type

Capability

F.2. User Defined Geometry Types Extension of GeoPackageBinary Geometry Encoding

On August 15, 2016 the GeoPackage SWG voted to remove this extension from the standard due to interoperability concerns. For more information see the release notes.

F.3. RTree Spatial Indexes

Introduction

This extension adds a new capability for spatially indexing columns with geometries encoded per clause Geometry Encoding and User Defined Geometry Types Extension of GeoPackageBinary Geometry Encoding.

The RTree index extension provides a means to encode an RTree index for geometry values in a GeoPackage. An RTree index provides a significant performance advantage for searches with basic envelope spatial criteria that return subsets of the rows in a feature table with a non-trivial number (thousands or more) of rows.

Spatial indexes provide a significant performance advantage for searches with basic envelope spatial criteria that return subsets of the rows in a feature table with a non-trivial number (thousands or more) of rows.[26]

Extension Author

GeoPackage SWG, author_name gpkg.

Extension Name or Template

gpkg_rtree_index

Extension Type

Applicability

This extension applies to any column specified in the gpkg_geometry_columns table.

Scope

Write-only, because it does not change the result of reads, although it may improve their performance.

Requirements

This extension uses the rtree implementation provided by the SQLite R*Tree Module extension documented at http://www.sqlite.org/rtree.html.

GeoPackage
Requirement 75

The "gpkg_rtree_index" extension name SHALL be used as a gpkg_extensions table extension_name column value to specify implementation of spatial indexes on a geometry column.

Requirement 76

A GeoPackage that implements spatial indexes SHALL have a gpkg_extensions table that contains a row for each spatially indexed column with extension_name "gpkg_rtree_index", the table_name of the table with a spatially indexed column, the column_name of the spatially indexed column, and a scope of "read-only".

Requirement 77

A GeoPackage SHALL implement spatial indexes on feature table geometry columns using the SQLite Virtual Table RTrees and triggers specified below. The tables below contain SQL templates with variables. Replace the following template variables with the specified values to create the required SQL statements:
<t>: The name of the feature table containing the geometry column
<c>: The name of the geometry column in <t> that is being indexed
<i>: The name of the integer primary key column in <t> as specified in Requirement 29

Create Virtual Table

RTree spatial indexes on geometry columns SHALL be created using the SQLite Virtual Table RTree extension. An application that creates a spatial index SHALL create it using the following SQL statement template:

CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE rtree_<t>_<c> USING rtree(id, minx, maxx, miny, maxy)

where <t> and <c> are replaced with the names of the feature table and geometry column being indexed. The rtree function id parameter becomes the virtual table 64-bit signed integer primary key id column, and the min/max x/y parameters are min- and max-value pairs (stored as 32-bit floating point numbers) for each dimension that become the virtual table data columns that are populated to create the spatial rtree index.

Load Spatial Index Values

The indexes provided by the SQLite Virtual Table RTree extension are not automatic indices. This means the index data structure needs to be manually populated, updated and queried. Each newly created spatial index SHALL be populated using the following SQL statement

INSERT OR REPLACE INTO rtree_<t>_<c>
  SELECT <i>, st_minx(<c>), st_maxx(<c>), st_miny(<c>), st_maxy(<c>) FROM <t>;

where <t> and <c> are replaced with the names of the feature table and geometry column being indexed and <i> is replaced with the name of the feature table integer primary key column.

Define Triggers to Maintain Spatial Index Values

For each spatial index in a GeoPackage, corresponding insert, update and delete triggers that update the spatial index SHALL be present on the indexed geometry column. These spatial index triggers SHALL be defined as follows:

/* Conditions: Insertion of non-empty geometry
   Actions   : Insert record into rtree */
CREATE TRIGGER rtree_<t>_<c>_insert AFTER INSERT ON <t>
  WHEN (new.<c> NOT NULL AND NOT ST_IsEmpty(NEW.<c>))
BEGIN
  INSERT OR REPLACE INTO rtree_<t>_<c> VALUES (
    NEW.<i>,
    ST_MinX(NEW.<c>), ST_MaxX(NEW.<c>),
    ST_MinY(NEW.<c>), ST_MaxY(NEW.<c>)
  );
END;

/* Conditions: Update of geometry column to non-empty geometry
               No row ID change
   Actions   : Update record in rtree */
CREATE TRIGGER rtree_<t>_<c>_update1 AFTER UPDATE OF <c> ON <t>
  WHEN OLD.<i> = NEW.<i> AND
       (NEW.<c> NOTNULL AND NOT ST_IsEmpty(NEW.<c>))
BEGIN
  INSERT OR REPLACE INTO rtree_<t>_<c> VALUES (
    NEW.<i>,
    ST_MinX(NEW.<c>), ST_MaxX(NEW.<c>),
    ST_MinY(NEW.<c>), ST_MaxY(NEW.<c>)
  );
END;

/* Conditions: Update of geometry column to empty geometry
               No row ID change
   Actions   : Remove record from rtree */
CREATE TRIGGER rtree_<t>_<c>_update2 AFTER UPDATE OF <c> ON <t>
  WHEN OLD.<i> = NEW.<i> AND
       (NEW.<c> ISNULL OR ST_IsEmpty(NEW.<c>))
BEGIN
  DELETE FROM rtree_<t>_<c> WHERE id = OLD.<i>;
END;

/* Conditions: Update of any column
               Row ID change
               Non-empty geometry
   Actions   : Remove record from rtree for old <i>
               Insert record into rtree for new <i> */
CREATE TRIGGER rtree_<t>_<c>_update3 AFTER UPDATE OF <c> ON <t>
  WHEN OLD.<i> != NEW.<i> AND
       (NEW.<c> NOTNULL AND NOT ST_IsEmpty(NEW.<c>))
BEGIN
  DELETE FROM rtree_<t>_<c> WHERE id = OLD.<i>;
  INSERT OR REPLACE INTO rtree_<t>_<c> VALUES (
    NEW.<i>,
    ST_MinX(NEW.<c>), ST_MaxX(NEW.<c>),
    ST_MinY(NEW.<c>), ST_MaxY(NEW.<c>)
  );
END;

/* Conditions: Update of any column
               Row ID change
               Empty geometry
   Actions   : Remove record from rtree for old and new <i> */
CREATE TRIGGER rtree_<t>_<c>_update4 AFTER UPDATE ON <t>
  WHEN OLD.<i> != NEW.<i> AND
       (NEW.<c> ISNULL OR ST_IsEmpty(NEW.<c>))
BEGIN
  DELETE FROM rtree_<t>_<c> WHERE id IN (OLD.<i>, NEW.<i>);
END;

/* Conditions: Row deleted
   Actions   : Remove record from rtree for old <i> */
CREATE TRIGGER rtree_<t>_<c>_delete AFTER DELETE ON <t>
  WHEN old.<c> NOT NULL
BEGIN
  DELETE FROM rtree_<t>_<c> WHERE id = OLD.<i>;
END;

where <t> and <c> are replaced with the names of the feature table and geometry column being indexed and <i> is replaced with the name of the feature table integer primary key column.

GeoPackage SQLite Configuration

Definition of SQLite configuration settings

Setting compile or runtime Option Shall / Not (Value) Discussion

compile

SQLITE_ENABLE_RTREE

Shall

RTrees ares used for GeoPackage Spatial Indexes

compile

SQLITE_RTREE_INT_ONLY

Not

RTrees with floating point values are used for GeoPackage spatial indexes

GeoPackage SQLite Extension

Definition of SQL functions

SQL Function Description Use

ST_IsEmpty(geom Geometry): integer

Returns 1 if geometry value is empty, 0 if not empty, NULL if geometry value is NULL

Test if a geometry value corresponds to the empty set

ST_MinX(geom Geometry): real

Returns the minimum X value of the bounding envelope of a geometry

Update the spatial index on a geometry column in a feature table

ST_MaxX(geom Geometry): real

Returns the maximum Y value of the bounding envelope of a geometry

Update the spatial index on a geometry column in a feature table

ST_MinY(geom Geometry): real

Returns the minimum X value of the bounding envelope of a geometry

Update the spatial index on a geometry column in a feature table

ST_MaxY(geom Geometry): real

Returns the maximum Y value of the bounding envelope of a geometry

Update the spatial index on a geometry column in a feature table

Requirement 78

The SQL functions on geometries in this SQLite Extension SHALL operate correctly on extended geometry types specified by User Defined Geometry Types Extension of GeoPackageBinary Geometry Encoding and/or GeoPackage Non-Linear Geometry Types when those extensions are also implemented.

Abstract Test Suite

Extension Name

Test Case ID

/extensions/rtree/extension_name

Test Purpose

Verify that spatial index extensions are registered using the "gpkg_rtree_index" name in the gpkg_extensions table.

Test Method

  1. SELECT COUNT(*) FROM gpkg_extensions WHERE extension_name = gpkg_rtree_index;

  2. Extension not testable if count = 0

Reference

Annex F.3 Req 75

Test Type

Capability

Extensions Row

Test Case ID

/extensions/rtree/extension_row

Test Purpose

Verify that the "gpkg_rtree_index" extension name is used to register spatial index extensions.

Test Method

  1. SELECT ge.table_name AS getn, ge.column_name AS gecn, ge.scope AS ges, ggc.column_name AS ggccn FROM gpkg_extensions ge LEFT OUTER JOIN gpkg_geometry_columns ggc ON ge.table_name = ggc.table_name WHERE extension_name = gpkg_rtree_index

    1. Not testable if result set is empty

    2. Fail if any ggccn is NULL

    3. Fail if any ges is not write-only

  2. Pass otherwise

Reference

Annex F.3 Req 76

Test Type

Basic

Implementation

Test Case ID

/reg_ext/features/spatial_indexes/implementation

Test Purpose

Verify the correct implementation of spatial indexes on feature table geometry columns.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name, column_name FROM gpkg_geometry_columns WHERE table_name IN (SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_extensions WHERE extension_name == gpkg_rtree_index)

  2. Not testable if result set is empty

  3. For each row table_name, column_name from step 1

    1. SELECT sql FROM sqlite_master WHERE tbl_name = rtree_ || result_set_table_name || _ || result_set_column_name

      1. Fail if returned sql != CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE "rtree_ || result_set_table_name || _ || result_set_column_name ||" USING rtree(id, minx, maxx, miny, maxy)

    2. SELECT sql FROM sqlite_master WHERE type = trigger AND name = rtree_ || result_set_table_name || _ || result_set_column_name || _insert

      1. Fail if returned sql != result of populating insert triggers template using result_set_table_name for <t> and result_set_column_name for <c>

    3. SELECT sql FROM sqlite_master WHERE type = trigger AND name LIKE rtree_ || result_set_table_name || _ || result_set_column_name || _update% ORDER BY name ASC

      1. Fail if returned sql != result of populating 4 update triggers templates using result_set_table_name for <t> and result_set_column_name for <c>

    4. SELECT sql FROM sqlite_master WHERE type=trigger AND name = rtree_ || result_set_table_name || _ || result_set_column_name || _delete

      1. Fail if returned sql != result of populating delete trigger template using result_set_table_name for <t> and result_set_column_name for <c>

  4. Pass if no fails

Reference

Annex F.3 Req 77

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/reg_ext/features/spatial_indexes/implementation/sql_functions

Test Purpose

Verify the correct implementation of sql functions used in spatial indexes on feature table geometry columns.

Test Method

  1. Open Geometry Test Data Set GeoPackage with GeoPackage SQLite Extension

  2. For each Geometry Test Data Set <gtype_test> data table row for each geometry type in Annex G, for an assortment of srs_ids, for an assortment of coordinate values including empty geometries, without and with z and / or m values, in both big and little endian encodings:

    1. SELECT Fail FROM <gtype_test> WHERE ST_IsEmpty(geom.) != empty

    2. SELECT Fail FROM <gtype_test> WHERE ST_MinX(geom) != minx

    3. SELECT Fail FROM <gtype_test> WHERE ST_MaxX(geom) != maxx

    4. SELECT Fail FROM <gtype_test> WHERE ST_MinY(geom) != miny

    5. SELECT Fail FROM <gtype_test> WHERE ST_MaxY(geom) != maxy

  3. Pass if no Fail selected from step 2

Reference

Annex F.3 Req 78

Test Type

Capability

F.4. Geometry Type Triggers

On August 15, 2016 the GeoPackage SWG voted to remote this extension from the standard due to interoperability concerns. For more information see the release notes.

F.5. Geometry SRS ID Triggers

On August 15, 2016 the GeoPackage SWG voted to remote this extension from the standard due to interoperability concerns. For more information see the release notes.

F.6. Zoom Other Intervals

Introduction

This extension of clause Zoom Levels allows zoom level intervals other than a factor of two.

In a GeoPackage, zoom levels are integers in sequence from 0 to n that identify tile matrix layers in a tile matrix set that contain tiles of decreasing spatial extent and finer spatial resolution. Adjacent zoom levels immediately precede or follow each other and differ by a value of 1. Pixel sizes are real numbers in the terrain units of the spatial reference system of a tile image specifying the dimensions of the real world area represented by one pixel. Pixel sizes MAY vary by a constant factor or by different factors or intervals between some or all adjacent zoom levels in a tile matrix set. In the commonly used "zoom times two" convention, pixel sizes vary by a factor of 2 between all adjacent zoom levels, as shown in the example in Tiles Zoom Times Two Example (Informative).

This extension enables use of "zoom other intervals" conventions with different factors or irregular intervals with pixel sizes chosen for intuitive cartographic representation of raster data, or to coincide with the original pixel size of commonly used global image products. See WMTS [16] Annex E for additional examples of both conventions.

Extension Author

GeoPackage SWG, author_name gpkg

Extension Name or Template

gpkg_zoom_other

Extension Type

Extension of Existing Requirement in clause 2.2.3.

Applicability

This extension applies to any table listed in the gpkg_contents table with a data_type of tiles.

Scope

Read-write

Requirements

GeoPackage
Requirement 87

The "gpkg_zoom_other" extension name SHALL be used as a gpkg_extensions table extension name column value to specify implementation of other zoom intervals on a tile pyramid user data table as specified in Zoom Other Intervals.

Requirement 88

A GeoPackage that implements other zoom intervals SHALL have a gpkg_extensions table that contains a row for each tile pyramid user data table with other zoom intervals with extension_name "gpkg_zoom_other", the table_name of the table with other zoom intervals, and the "tile_data" column_name.

Requirement 89

Tile pyramid user data tables MAY have pixel sizes that vary by irregular intervals or by regular intervals other than a factor of two (the default) between adjacent zoom levels. Extends Requirement 35.

The pixel_x_size and / or pixel_y_size column values in the gpkg_tile_matrix table vary by irregular intervals or by regular intervals other than a factor of two (the default) between adjacent zoom levels for a particular tile matrix set pyramid table.

GeoPackage SQLite Configuration

None

GeoPackage SQLite Extension

None

Abstract Test Suite

Extensions Name

Test Case ID

/reg_ext/tiles/zoom_levels/data/zoom_other_ext_name

Test Purpose

Verify that the "gpkg_zoom_other" extension name is used to register tiles tables with other than factors of two zoom intervals.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = 'tiles'

  2. Not testable if empty result set

  3. For each row table_name from step 1

    1. SELECT zoom_level, pixel_x_size, pixel_y_size FROM gpkg_tile_matrix WHERE table_name = selected table name ORDER BY zoom_level ASC

    2. Not testable if returns empty result set

    3. Not testable if there are not two rows with adjacent zoom levels

    4. Not testable if no pair of rows for adjacent zoom levels have pixel_x_size or pixel_y_size values that differ by other than factors of two

    5. /opt/extension_mechanism/extensions/data/table_def

    6. Fail if failed

    7. SELECT * FROM gpkg_extensions WHERE table_name = selected table name AND extension_name = 'gpkg_zoom_other'

    8. Fail if returns an empty result set

    9. Log pass otherwise

  4. Pass if logged pass and no fails

Reference

Annex F.6 Req 87

Test Type

Basic

Extensions Row

Test Case ID

/reg_ext/tiles/zoom_levels/data/zoom_other_ext_row

Test Purpose

Verify that tiles tables with other than factors of two zoom intervals are registered using the "gpkg_zoom_other" extension name.

Test Method

/reg_ext/tiles/zoom_levels/data/zoom_other_ext_name

Reference

Annex F.6 Req 88

Test Type:

Capability

Zoom Interval

Test Case ID

/reg_ext/tiles/zoom_levels/data/zoom_intervals

Test Purpose

Verify that zoom level pixel sizes for tile matrix user data tables vary by factors of 2 between adjacent zoom levels in the tile matrix metadata table only for tile matrix sets that this extension does not apply to.

Test Method

  1. Override test /opt/tiles/zoom_levels/data/zoom_times_two

  2. SELECT table_name AS tn FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = 'tiles'

  3. For each row tn from step 2

    1. WHEN (SELECT tbl_name FROM sqlite_master WHERE tbl_name = 'gpkg_extensions') = 'gpkg_extensions' THEN (SELECT table_name from gpkg_extensions WHERE extension_name = 'gpkg_zoom_other' AND table_name = 'tn') END;

    2. If returns empty result set, execute test /opt/tiles/zoom_levels/data/zoom_times_two

  4. Pass if no fails

Reference

Annex F.6 Req 89

Test Type

Capability

F.7. Tiles Encoding WebP

Introduction

This extension of clauses Tile Encoding PNG and Tile Encoding JPEG allows encoding of tile images in WebP format.

PNG and JPEG are the default MIME types for encoding images in tile pyramid user data tables. This extension allows the use of image/x-webp as an additional encoding type.

Extension Author

GeoPackage SWG, author_name gpkg.

Extension Name or Template

gpkg_webp

Extension Type

Extension of Existing Requirement in clauses Tile Encoding PNG and Tile Encoding JPEG.

Applicability

This extension applies to any table listed in the gpkg_contents table with a data_type of tiles.

Scope

Read-write

Requirements

GeoPackage
Requirement 90

GeoPackages with one or more rows in the gpkg_extensions table with an extension_name of "gpkg_webp" SHALL comply with this extension.

Requirement 91

A GeoPackage that contains tile pyramid user data tables with tile_data columns that contain images in WebP format SHALL contain a gpkg_extensions table that contains row records with table_name values for each such table, column_name values of "tile_data", extension_name column values of "gpkg_webp", and scope column values of "read-write".

Requirement 92

(extends GPKG-36 and GPKG-37) A GeoPackage that contains a tile pyramid user data table that contains tile data MAY store tile_data in MIME type image/x-webp [22]. The MIME type of values of the tile_data column in tile pyramid user data tables SHALL be image/x-webp.

GeoPackage SQLite Configuration

None

GeoPackage SQLite Extension

None

Abstract Test Suite

Extensions Name

Test Case ID

/extensions/tile_encoding_webp/data/webp_ext_name

Test Purpose:

Verify that the "gpkg_webp" extensions name is used to register WEBP tile encoding implementations.

Test Method:

  1. SELECT COUNT(*) FROM gpkg_extensions WHERE extension_name = gpkg_webp;

  2. Extension not in use if count is empty

Reference

Annex F.7 Req 90

Test Type

Basic

Extensions Row

Test Case ID

/extensions/tile_encoding_webp/data/webp_ext_row

Test Purpose:

Verify that this extension is registered using proper rows in the gpkg_extensions table.

Test Method:

  1. /opt/extension_mechanism/data/data_values_table_name will test whether the table_name values are valid.

  2. SELECT column_name, scope FROM gpkg_extensions where extension_name = gpkg_webp;

  3. For each row table_name from step 1

    1. Fail if column_name is not "tile_data"

    2. Fail if scope is not "read-write"

  4. Pass if no fails

Reference:

Annex F.7 Req 91

Test Type

Capability

Extensions Mime Type

Test Case ID

/extensions/tiles_encoding_webp/data/mime_type_webp

Test Purpose

Verify that a tile matrix user data table that conforms to this extension contains a valid image type, including images of MIME type image/x-webp.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_extensions WHERE extension_name = gpkg_webp

  2. For each table_name from step 1

    1. Run test /opt/tiles/tiles_encoding/data/mime_type_jpeg step 2 but allow an extra MIME type (step 2c) of "image/x-webp"

  3. Pass if no fails

Reference

Annex F.7 Req 92

Test Type

Capability

F.8. Metadata

Introduction

Two tables in a GeoPackage provide a means of storing metadata in MIME [21] encodings that are defined in accordance with any authoritative metadata specifications, and relating it to the features, rasters, and tiles data in a GeoPackage. These tables are intended to provide the support necessary to implement the hierarchical metadata models as defined in ISO 19115 [28] and illustrated in Hierarchical Metadata Example One - ISO19115. and Raster or Tile Metadata Example. As GeoPackage data is captured and updated, the most local and specific detailed metadata changes associated with the new or modified data MAY be captured separately, and referenced to existing global and general metadata.

The gpkg_metadata table that contains metadata is described in clause Metadata Table, and the gpkg_metadata_reference table that relates gpkg_metadata to GeoPackage data is described in clause Metadata Reference Table. There is no GeoPackage requirement that such metadata be provided or that defined metadata be structured in a hierarchical fashion [27]. This extension simply provides a mechanism for storing this information. If this extension is used, uch metadata [28] and data that relates it to GeoPackage contents should not be stored in other tables.

Extension Author

GeoPackage SWG, author_name gpkg

Extension Name or Template

gpkg_metadata

Extension Type

New Requirement

Applicability

This extension applies to any content in the GeoPackage.

Scope

Read-write

Requirements

Table Definitions
Metadata Table
Requirement 93

A GeoPackage A GeoPackage MAY contain a table named gpkg_metadata. If present it SHALL be defined per clauses Metadata Table, Metadata Table Definition, and gpkg_metadata Table Definition SQL.

The first component of GeoPackage metadata is the gpkg_metadata table that MAY contain metadata in MIME [21] encodings structured in accordance with any authoritative metadata specification, such as ISO 19115 [28], ISO 19115-2 [B6], ISO 19139 [B7], Dublin Core [B8], CSDGM [B10], DDMS [B12], NMF/NMIS [B13], etc. The GeoPackage interpretation of what constitutes "metadata" is a broad one that includes UML models [B14] encoded in XMI [B15], GML Application Schemas [30], ISO 19110 feature catalogues [B18], OWL [B20] and SKOS [B21] taxonomies, etc.

Table 18. Metadata Table Definition
Column Name Column Type Column Description Null Default Key

id

INTEGER

Metadata primary key

no

PK

md_scope

TEXT

Case sensitive name of the data scope to which this metadata applies; see Metadata Scopes below

no

dataset

md_standard_uri

TEXT

URI [23] reference to the metadata structure definition authority [29]

no

any

mime_type

TEXT

MIME [21] encoding of metadata

no

text/xml [24]

metadata

TEXT

metadata

no

''

The md_standard_uri data value provides an identifier for the metadata structure (schema) specified by its definition authority. The structure (schema) information could be in whatever encoding is used by the definition authority, e.g. UML [B14], or IDEF1x [B16], or XML/Schema [25][26][27], or RDF/S [B19].

Metadata Reference Table
Requirement 95

A GeoPackage that contains a gpkg_metadata table SHALL contain a gpkg_metadata_reference table per clauses Metadata Reference Table, Metadata Reference Table Definition (Table Name: gpkg_metadata_reference), and gpkg_metadata_reference Table Definition SQL.

The second component of GeoPackage metadata is the gpkg_metadata_reference table that links metadata in the gpkg_metadata table to data in the feature, and tiles tables defined in clauses 2.1.6 and 2.2.7. The gpkg_metadata_reference table is not required to contain any rows.

Table 19. Metadata Reference Table Definition (Table Name: gpkg_metadata_reference)
Column Name Col Type Column Description Null Default Key

reference_scope

TEXT

Lowercase metadata reference scope; one of geopackage, table,column, row, row/col

no

table_name

TEXT

Name of the table to which this metadata reference applies, or NULL for reference_scope of geopackage.

yes

column_name

TEXT

Name of the column to which this metadata reference applies; NULL for reference_scope of geopackage,table or row, or the name of a column in the table_name table for reference_scope of column or row/col

yes

row_id_value [30]

INTEGER

NULL for reference_scope of geopackage, table or column, or the rowed of a row record in the table_name table for reference_scope of row or row/col

yes

timestamp

DATETIME

timestamp value in ISO 8601 format as defined by the strftime function '%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%fZ' format string applied to the current time

no

strftime('%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%fZ', 'now')

md_file_id

INTEGER

gpkg_metadata table id column value for the metadata to which this gpkg_metadata_reference applies

no

FK

md_parent_id

INTEGER

gpkg_metadata table id column value for the hierarchical parent gpkg_metadata for the gpkg_metadata to which this gpkg_metadata_reference applies, or NULL if md_file_id forms the root of a metadata hierarchy

yes

FK

Every row in gpkg_metadata_reference that has null value as md_parent_id forms the root of a metadata hierarchy.[31]

Table Data Values
gpkg_extensions
Requirement 140

GeoPackages with a row in the gpkg_extensions table with an extension_name of "gpkg_metadata" SHALL comply with this extension. The row SHALL have a scope of "read-write".

gpkg_metadata

The md_scope column in the gpkg_metadata table is the name of the applicable scope for the contents of the metadata column for a given row. The list of valid scope names and their definitions is provided in Metadata Scopes below. The initial contents of this table were obtained from the ISO 19115 [28], Annex B B.5.25 MD_ScopeCode code list, which was extended [32] for use in the GeoPackage specification by addition of entries with "NA" as the scope code column in Metadata Table Definition.

Table 20. Metadata Scopes
Name (md_scope) Scope Code Definition

undefined

NA

Metadata information scope is undefined

fieldSession

012

Information applies to the field session

collectionSession

004

Information applies to the collection session

series

006

Information applies to the (dataset) series [33]

dataset

005

Information applies to the (geographic feature) dataset

featureType

010

Information applies to a feature type (class)

feature

009

Information applies to a feature (instance)

attributeType

002

Information applies to the attribute class

attribute

001

Information applies to the characteristic of a feature (instance)

tile

016

Information applies to a tile, a spatial subset of geographic data

model

015

Information applies to a copy or imitation of an existing or hypothetical object

catalog

NA

Metadata applies to a feature catalog [34]

schema

NA

Metadata applies to an application schema [35]

taxonomy

NA

Metadata applies to a taxonomy or knowledge system [36]

software

013

Information applies to a computer program or routine

service

014

Information applies to a capability which a service provider entity makes available to a service user entity through a set of interfaces that define a behavior, such as a use case

collectionHardware

003

Information applies to the collection hardware class

nonGeographicDataset

007

Information applies to non-geographic data

dimensionGroup

008

Information applies to a dimension group

Requirement 94

Each md_scope column value in a gpkg_metadata table or updateable view SHALL be one of the name column values from Metadata Scopes.

gpkg_metadata_reference
Requirement 96

Every gpkg_metadata_reference table reference scope column value SHALL be one of geopackage, table, column, row, row/col in lowercase.

Requirement 97

Every gpkg_metadata_reference table row with a reference_scope column value of geopackage SHALL have a table_name column value that is NULL. Every other gpkg_metadata_reference table row SHALL have a table_name column value that references a value in the gpkg_contents table_name column.

Requirement 98

Every gpkg_metadata_reference table row with a reference_scope column value of geopackage,table or row SHALL have a column_name column value that is NULL. Every other gpkg_metadata_reference table row SHALL have a column_name column value that contains the name of a column in the SQLite table or view identified by the table_name column value.

Requirement 99

Every gpkg_metadata_reference table row with a reference_scope column value of geopackage, table or column SHALL have a row_id_value column value that is NULL. Every other gpkg_metadata_reference table row SHALL have a row_id_value column value that contains the ROWID of a row in the SQLite table or view identified by the table_name column value.

Requirement 100

Every gpkg_metadata_reference table row timestamp column value SHALL be in ISO 8601 [29] format containing a complete date plus UTC hours, minutes, seconds and a decimal fraction of a second, with a Z (zulu) suffix indicating UTC.[37]

Requirement 101

Every gpkg_metadata_reference table row md_file_id column value SHALL be an id column value from the gpkg_metadata table.

Requirement 102

Every gpkg_metadata_reference table row md_parent_id column value that is NOT NULL SHALL be an id column value from the gpkg_metadata table that is not equal to the md_file_id column value for that row.

Abstract Test Suite

Table Definition
Metadata Table

Test Case ID

/extensions/metadata/metadata/table_def

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_metadata table exists and has the correct definition.

Test Method

  1. PRAGMA TABLE_INFO(gpkg_metadata)

  2. Fail if returns an empty result set.

  3. Pass if the column names, types, nullability, default values, and primary, foreign and unique key constraints match all of those in the contents of Table 18. Column order, check constraint and trigger definitions, and other column definitions in the returned sql are irrelevant.

  4. Fail otherwise.

Reference

Annex F.8 Req 93

Test Type

Basic

Metadata Reference Table

Test Case ID

/extensions/metadata/metadata_reference/table_def

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_metadata_reference table exists and has the correct definition.

Test Method

  1. SELECT sql FROM sqlite_master WHERE type = table AND tbl_name = gpkg_metadata_reference

  2. Fail if returns an empty result set.

  3. Pass if the column names and column definitions in the returned Create TABLE statement in the sql column value, including data type, nullability, default values and primary, foreign and unique key constraints match all of those in the contents of Table 33. Column order, check constraint and trigger definitions, and other column definitions in the returned sql are irrelevant.

  4. Fail otherwise.

Reference

Annex F.8 Req 95

Test Type

Basic

Table Data Values
gpkg_extensions

Test Case ID

/extensions/metadata/extensions/data_values_scope

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_extensions table has the required row.

Test Method

  1. SELECT scope FROM gpkg_extensions WHERE extension_name = gpkg_metadata;

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row returned from step 1

    1. Fail if scope is not "read-write".

  4. Pass if no fails

Reference

Annex F.8 Req 140

Test Type:

Capabilities

gpkg_metadata

Test Case ID

/extensions/metadata/metadata/data_values_md_scope

Test Purpose

Verify that each of the md_scope column values in a gpkg_metadata table is one of the name column values from [metadata_scopes].

Test Method

  1. SELECT md_scope FROM gpkg_metadata

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row returned from step 1

    1. Fail if md_scope value not one of the name column values from [metadata_scopes].

  4. Pass if no fails

Reference

Annex F.8 Req 94

Test Type:

Capabilities

gpkg_metadata_reference

Test Case ID

/extensions/metadata/metadata_reference/reference_scope

Test Purpose

Verify that gpkg_metadata_reference table reference_scope column values are valid.

Test Method

  1. SELECT reference_scope FROM gpkg_metadata_reference

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. SELECT reference_scope FROM gpkg_metadata_reference WHERE reference_scope NOT IN (geopackage,table,column,row,row/col)

  4. Fail if does not return an empty result set

  5. Pass otherwise.

Reference

Annex F.8 Req 96

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/extensions/metadata/metadata_reference/table_name

Test Purpose

Verify that gpkg_metadata_reference table_name column values are NULL for rows with reference_scope values of geopackage, and reference gpkg_contents table_name values for all other reference_scope values.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_metadata_reference

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_metadata_reference WHERE reference_scope = 'geopackage'

  4. Fail if result set contains any non-NULL values

  5. SELECT table_name FROM metadata_reference WHERE reference_scope != 'geopackage' AND table_name NOT IN (SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents)

  6. Fail if result set is not empty

  7. Pass otherwise.

Reference

Annex F.8 Req 97

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/extensions/metadata/metadata_reference/column_name

Test Purpose

Verify that gpkg_metadata_reference column_name column values are NULL for rows with reference scope values of geopackage, table, or row, and contain the name of a column in table_name table for other reference scope values.

Test Method

  1. SELECT column_name FROM gpkg_metadata_reference

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. SELECT column_name FROM gpkg_metadata_reference WHERE reference_scope IN (geopackage, table, row)

  4. Fail if result set contains any non-NULL values

  5. SELECT <table_name>, <column_name> FROM metadata_reference WHERE reference_scope NOT IN (geopackage, table, row)

  6. For each row from step 5

    1. SELECT sql FROM sqlite_master WHERE type = 'table' AND tbl_name = '<table_name>'

    2. Fail if returns an empty result set.

    3. Fail if the one of the column names in the returned sql Create TABLE statement is not <column_name>

    4. Log pass otherwise

  7. Pass if logged pass and no fails.

Reference

Annex F.8 Req 98

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/extensions/metadata/metadata_reference/row_id_value

Test Purpose

Verify that gpkg_metadata_reference row_id_value column values are NULL for rows with reference scope values of geopackage, table, or row, and contain the ROWID of a row in the table_name for other reference scope values.

Test Method

  1. SELECT row_id_value FROM gpkg_metadata_reference

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. SELECT row_id_value FROM gpkg_metadata_reference WHERE reference_scope IN (geopackage, table, row)

  4. Fail if result set contains any non-NULL values

  5. For each SELECT <table_name>, <row_id_value> FROM gpkg_metadata_reference WHERE reference_scope NOT IN (geopackage, table, row)

  6. For each row from step 5

    1. SELECT * FROM <table_name> WHERE ROWID = <row_id_value>

    2. Fail if result set is empty

    3. Log pass otherwise

  7. Pass if logged pass and no fails.

Reference

Annex F.8 Req 99

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/extensions/metadata/metadata_reference/timestamp

Test Purpose

Verify that every gpkg_metadata_reference table row timestamp column value is in ISO 8601 UTC format.

Test Method

  1. SELECT timestamp from gpkg_metadata_reference.

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row from step 1

    1. Fail if format of returned value does not match yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.hhhZ

    2. Log pass otherwise

  4. Pass if logged pass and no fails.

Reference

Annex F.8 Req 100

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/extensions/metadata/metadata_reference/md_file_id

Test Purpose

Verify that every gpkg_metadata_reference table row md_file_id column value references a gpkg_metadata id column value.

Test Method

  1. PRAGMA foreign_key_check(geometry_columns)

  2. Fail if returns any rows with a fourth column foreign key index value of 0

Reference

Annex F.8 Req 101

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/extensions/metadata/metadata_reference/md_parent_id

Test Purpose

Verify that every gpkg_metadata_reference table row md_parent_id column value that is not null is an id column value from the gpkg_metadata_table that is not equal to the md_file_id column value for that row.

Test Method

  1. SELECT md_file_id FROM gpkg_metadata_reference

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. SELECT gmr.md_file_id, gmr.md_parent_id FROM gpkg_metadata_reference AS gmr WHERE gmr.md_file_id == gmr.md_parent_id

  4. Fail if result set is not empty

  5. SELECT gmr.md_file_id, gmr.md_parent_id, gm.id FROM gpkg_metadata_reference AS gmr LEFT OUTER JOIN gpkg_metadata gm ON gmr.md_parent_id =gm.id

  6. Fail if any result set gm.id values are NULL

  7. Pass otherwise

Reference

Annex F.8 Req 102

Test Type

Capability

Table Definition SQL

gpkg_metadata
gpkg_metadata Table Definition SQL
CREATE TABLE gpkg_metadata (
  id INTEGER CONSTRAINT m_pk PRIMARY KEY ASC NOT NULL,
  md_scope TEXT NOT NULL DEFAULT 'dataset',
  md_standard_uri TEXT NOT NULL,
  mime_type TEXT NOT NULL DEFAULT 'text/xml',
  metadata TEXT NOT NULL DEFAULT ''
);
gpkg_metadata_reference
gpkg_metadata_reference Table Definition SQL
CREATE TABLE gpkg_metadata_reference (
  reference_scope TEXT NOT NULL,
  table_name TEXT,
  column_name TEXT,
  row_id_value INTEGER,
  timestamp DATETIME NOT NULL DEFAULT (strftime('%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%fZ','now')),
  md_file_id INTEGER NOT NULL,
  md_parent_id INTEGER,
  CONSTRAINT crmr_mfi_fk FOREIGN KEY (md_file_id) REFERENCES gpkg_metadata(id),
  CONSTRAINT crmr_mpi_fk FOREIGN KEY (md_parent_id) REFERENCES gpkg_metadata(id)
);
Example: gpkg_metadata_reference SQL insert statement (Informative)
INSERT INTO gpkg_metadata_reference VALUES (
  'table',
  'sample_rasters',
  NULL,
  NULL,
  '2012-08-17T14:49:32.932Z',
  98,
  99
)

Trigger Definition SQL (Informative)

metadata
metadata Trigger Definition SQL
CREATE TRIGGER 'gpkg_metadata_md_scope_insert'
BEFORE INSERT ON 'gpkg_metadata'
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'insert on table gpkg_metadata violates
constraint: md_scope must be one of undefined | fieldSession |
collectionSession | series | dataset | featureType | feature |
attributeType | attribute | tile | model | catalog | schema |
taxonomy software | service | collectionHardware |
nonGeographicDataset | dimensionGroup')
WHERE NOT(NEW.md_scope IN
('undefined','fieldSession','collectionSession','series','dataset',
'featureType','feature','attributeType','attribute','tile','model',
'catalog','schema','taxonomy','software','service',
'collectionHardware','nonGeographicDataset','dimensionGroup'));
END

CREATE TRIGGER 'gpkg_metadata_md_scope_update'
BEFORE UPDATE OF 'md_scope' ON 'gpkg_metadata'
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'update on table gpkg_metadata violates
constraint: md_scope must be one of undefined | fieldSession |
collectionSession | series | dataset | featureType | feature |
attributeType | attribute | tile | model | catalog | schema |
taxonomy software | service | collectionHardware |
nonGeographicDataset | dimensionGroup')
WHERE NOT(NEW.md_scope IN
('undefined','fieldSession','collectionSession','series','dataset',
'featureType','feature','attributeType','attribute','tile','model',
'catalog','schema','taxonomy','software','service',
'collectionHardware','nonGeographicDataset','dimensionGroup'));
END
metadata_reference
gpkg_metadata_reference Trigger Definition SQL
CREATE TRIGGER 'gpkg_metadata_reference_reference_scope_insert'
BEFORE INSERT ON 'gpkg_metadata_reference'
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'insert on table gpkg_metadata_reference
violates constraint: reference_scope must be one of "geopackage",
table", "column", "row", "row/col"')
WHERE NOT NEW.reference_scope IN
('geopackage','table','column','row','row/col');
END

CREATE TRIGGER 'gpkg_metadata_reference_reference_scope_update'
BEFORE UPDATE OF 'reference_scope' ON 'gpkg_metadata_reference'
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'update on table gpkg_metadata_reference
violates constraint: referrence_scope must be one of "geopackage",
"table", "column", "row", "row/col"')
WHERE NOT NEW.reference_scope IN
('geopackage','table','column','row','row/col');
END

CREATE TRIGGER 'gpkg_metadata_reference_column_name_insert'
BEFORE INSERT ON 'gpkg_metadata_reference'
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'insert on table gpkg_metadata_reference
violates constraint: column name must be NULL when reference_scope
is "geopackage", "table" or "row"')
WHERE (NEW.reference_scope IN ('geopackage','table','row')
AND NEW.column_name IS NOT NULL);
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'insert on table gpkg_metadata_reference
violates constraint: column name must be defined for the specified
table when reference_scope is "column" or "row/col"')
WHERE (NEW.reference_scope IN ('column','row/col')
AND NOT NEW.table_name IN (
SELECT name FROM SQLITE_MASTER WHERE type = 'table'
AND name = NEW.table_name
AND sql LIKE ('%' || NEW.column_name || '%')));
END

CREATE TRIGGER 'gpkg_metadata_reference_column_name_update'
BEFORE UPDATE OF column_name ON 'gpkg_metadata_reference'
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'update on table gpkg_metadata_reference
violates constraint: column name must be NULL when reference_scope
is "geopackage", "table" or "row"')
WHERE (NEW.reference_scope IN ('geopackage','table','row')
AND NEW.column_nameIS NOT NULL);
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'update on table gpkg_metadata_reference
violates constraint: column name must be defined for the specified
table when reference_scope is "column" or "row/col"')
WHERE (NEW.reference_scope IN ('column','row/col')
AND NOT NEW.table_name IN (
SELECT name FROM SQLITE_MASTER WHERE type = 'table'
AND name = NEW.table_name
AND sql LIKE ('%' || NEW.column_name || '%')));
END

CREATE TRIGGER 'gpkg_metadata_reference_row_id_value_insert'
BEFORE INSERT ON 'gpkg_metadata_reference'
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'insert on table gpkg_metadata_reference
violates constraint: row_id_value must be NULL when reference_scope
is "geopackage", "table" or "column"')
WHERE NEW.reference_scope IN ('geopackage','table','column')
AND NEW.row_id_value IS NOT NULL;
END

CREATE TRIGGER 'gpkg_metadata_reference_row_id_value_update'
BEFORE UPDATE OF 'row_id_value' ON 'gpkg_metadata_reference'
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'update on table gpkg_metadata_reference
violates constraint: row_id_value must be NULL when reference_scope
is "geopackage", "table" or "column"')
WHERE NEW.reference_scope IN ('geopackage','table','column')
AND NEW.row_id_value IS NOT NULL;
END

CREATE TRIGGER 'gpkg_metadata_reference_timestamp_insert'
BEFORE INSERT ON 'gpkg_metadata_reference'
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'insert on table gpkg_metadata_reference
violates constraint: timestamp must be a valid time in ISO 8601
"yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.cccZ" form')
WHERE NOT (NEW.timestamp GLOB
'[1-2][0-9][0-9][0-9]-[0-1][0-9]-[0-3][0-9]T[0-2][0-9]:[0-5][0-
9]:[0-5][0-9].[0-9][0-9][0-9]Z'
AND strftime('%s',NEW.timestamp) NOT NULL);
END
CREATE TRIGGER 'gpkg_metadata_reference_timestamp_update'
BEFORE UPDATE OF 'timestamp' ON 'gpkg_metadata_reference'
FOR EACH ROW BEGIN
SELECT RAISE(ABORT, 'update on table gpkg_metadata_reference
violates constraint: timestamp must be a valid time in ISO 8601
"yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.cccZ" form')
WHERE NOT (NEW.timestamp GLOB
'[1-2][0-9][0-9][0-9]-[0-1][0-9]-[0-3][0-9]T[0-2][0-9]:[0-5][0-
9]:[0-5][0-9].[0-9][0-9][0-9]Z'
AND strftime('%s',NEW.timestamp) NOT NULL);
END

Examples (Informative)

Hierarchical Metadata Example One - ISO19115.

Suppose we have this metadata:

CREATE TABLE gpkg_metadata (
  id INTEGER NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
  md_scope TEXT NOT NULL DEFAULT 'undefined',
  md_standard_uri TEXT NOT NULL,
  metadata TEXT NOT NULL
)
id md_scope md_standard_uri metadata

0

undefined

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

3

series

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

4

dataset

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

5

featureType

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

6

feature

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

7

attributeType

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

8

attribute

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

and this reference table definition:

CREATE TABLE gpkg_metadata_reference (
  reference_scope TEXT NOT NULL,
  table_name TEXT,
  column_name TEXT,
  row_id_value INTEGER,
  timestamp TEXT NOT NULL DEFAULT (strftime('%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%fZ','now')),
  md_file_id INTEGER NOT NULL,
  md_parent_id INTEGER,
  CONSTRAINT crmr_mfi_fk FOREIGN KEY (md_file_id) REFERENCES gpkg_metadata(id),
  CONSTRAINT crmr_mpi_fk FOREIGN KEY (md_parent_id) REFERENCES gpkg_metadata(id)
)

1) Consider a geographic data provider generating vector mapping data for three Administrative areas(A, B and C). … The metadata could be carried exclusively at Dataset Series level.

Then we need a record for each layer table for the three admin areas, like this:

INSERT INTO gpkg_metadata_reference VALUES (
'table', /* reference type */
'roads', /* table name */
'undefined', /* column_name */
-1, /* row_id_value  */
(datetime('now')),
3,  /* md_file_id  */
0  /* md_parent_id  */
)

2) After some time alternate vector mapping of Administrative area A becomes available. The metadata would then be extended for Administrative area A, to describe the new quality date values. These values would supersede those given for the Dataset series, but only for Administrative area A. The metadata for B and C would remain unchanged. This new metadata would be recorded at Dataset level.

Then we need a record for each layer table in "A" like this:

INSERT INTO gpkg_metadata_reference VALUES (
'table', /* reference type */
'roads', /* table name */
'undefined', /* column_name */
-1, /* row_id_value  */
(datetime('now')),
 4,  /* md_file_id  */
3  /* md_parent_id  */
)

3) Eventually further data becomes available for Administrative area A, with a complete re-survey of the road network. Again this implies new metadata for the affected feature types. This metadata would be carried at Feature type level for Administrative area A. All other metadata relating to other feature types remains unaffected. Only the metadata for roads in Administrative area A is modified. This road metadata is recorded at Feature type level.

Then we need a record for each layer table for the roads network, like this:

INSERT INTO gpkg_metadata_reference VALUES (
'table', /* reference type */
'roads', /* table name */
'undefined', /* column_name */
-1, /* row_id_value  */
(datetime('now')),
5,  /* md_file_id  */
4  /* md_parent_id  */
)

4) An anomaly in the road survey is identified, in that all Overhead clearances for the Administrative area A have been surveyed to the nearest metre. These are re-surveyed to the nearest decimetre. This re-survey implies new metadata for the affected attribute type Overhead Clearance. All other metadata for Administrative area A remains unaffected. This Overhead Clearance metadata is recorded at Attribute Type level.

Then we need a record for each layer table in the roads network with attribute type Overhead Clearance, like this;

INSERT INTO gpkg_metadata_reference VALUES (
'column', /* reference type */
'roads', /* table name */
'overhead_clearance', /* column_name */
-1, /* row_id_value  */
(datetime('now')),
7,  /* md_file_id  */
4  /* md_parent_id  */
)

5) A new bridge is constructed in Administrative area A. This new data is reflected in the geographic data for Administrative area A, and new metadata is required to record this new feature. All other metadata for Administrative area A remains unaffected. This new feature metadata is recorded at Feature instance level.

Then we need a record for the bridge layer table row for the new bridge, like this:

INSERT INTO gpkg_metadata_reference VALUES (
'row', /* reference type */
'bridge', /* table name */
'undefined', /* column_name */
987, /* row_id_value  */
(datetime('now')),
6,  /* md_file_id  */
4  /* md_parent_id  */
)

6) The overhead clearance attribute of the new bridge was wrongly recorded, and is modified. Again this new attribute requires new metadata to describe the modification. All other metadata for Administrative area A remains unaffected. This new attribute metadata is recorded at Attribute instance level.

Then we need a record for the clearance attribute value, like this:

INSERT INTO gpkg_metadata_reference VALUES (
'row/col', /* reference type */
'bridge', /* table name */
'overhead_clearance', /* column_name */
987, /* row_id_value  */
(datetime('now')),
8,  /* md_file_id  */
4  /* md_parent_id  */
)
Hierarchical Metadata Example Two - Field Data Collection

This use case demonstrates a mechanism to indicate which data in a GeoPackage that was originally loaded with data from one or more services has been collected or updated since the initial load, and therefore MAY need to be uploaded to update the original services (e.g. WFS, WCS, WMTS).

Suppose a user with a mobile handheld device goes out in the field and collects observations of a new "Point of Interest" (POI) feature type, and associated metadata about the field session, the new feature type, some POI instances and some of their attributes (e.g. spatial accuracy, attribute accuracy) that results in the following additional metadata:

id md_scope md_standard_uri metadata

1

fieldSession

http://schemas.opengis.net/iso/19139/

TEXT

10

featureType

http://schemas.opengis.net/iso/19139/

TEXT

11

feature

http://schemas.opengis.net/iso/19139/

TEXT

12

attribute

http://schemas.opengis.net/iso/19139/

TEXT

13

attribute

http://schemas.opengis.net/iso/19139/

TEXT

14

feature

http://schemas.opengis.net/iso/19139/

TEXT

15

attribute

http://schemas.opengis.net/iso/19139/

TEXT

16

attribute

http://schemas.opengis.net/iso/19139/

TEXT

17

feature

http://schemas.opengis.net/iso/19139/

TEXT

18

attribute

http://schemas.opengis.net/iso/19139/

TEXT

19

attribute

http://schemas.opengis.net/iso/19139/

TEXT

(This example assumes that the field session data is still considered "raw" and won’t be considered a data set or part of a data series until it has been verified and cleaned, but if that is wrong then additional series and data set metadata could be added.)

Then we need a gpkg_metadata_reference record for the field session for the new POI table, whose md_parent_id is undefined:

INSERT INTO gpkg_metadata_reference VALUES (
'table', /* reference type */
'poi', /* table name */
'undefined', /* column_name */
-1, /* row_id_value  */
(strftime('%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%fZ','now')),
1,  /* md_file_id  */
0  /* md_parent_id  */
)

Then we need a gpkg_metadata_reference record for the feature type for the new POI table, whose md_parent_id is that of the field session:

INSERT INTO gpkg_metadata_reference VALUES (
'table', /* reference type */
'poi', /* table name */
'undefined', /* column_name */
-1, /* row_id_value  */
(strftime('%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%fZ','now')),
10,  /* md_file_id  */
1  /* md_parent_id  */
)

Then we need gpkg_metadata_reference records for the poi feature instance rows, whose md_parent_id is that of the field session:

INSERT INTO gpkg_metadata_reference VALUES (
'row', /* reference type */
'poi', /* table name */
'undefined', /* column_name */
1, /* row_id_value  */
(strftime('%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%fZ','now')),
11,  /* md_file_id  */
1  /* md_parent_id  */
)

INSERT INTO gpkg_metadata_reference VALUES (
'row', /* reference type */
'poi', /* table name */
'undefined', /* column_name */
2, /* row_id_value  */
14,  /* md_file_id  */
1  /* md_parent_id  */
)

INSERT INTO gpkg_metadata_reference VALUES (
'row', /* reference type */
'poi', /* table name */
'undefined', /* column_name */
3, /* row_id_value  */
(strftime('%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%fZ','now')),
17,  /* md_file_id  */
1  /* md_parent_id  */
)

And finally we need gpkg_metadata_reference records for the poi attribute instance metadata , whose md_parent_id is that of the field session:

INSERT INTO gpkg_metadata_reference VALUES (
'row/col', /* reference type */
'poi', /* table name */
'point', /* column_name */
1, /* row_id_value  */
(strftime('%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%fZ','now')),
12,  /* md_file_id  */
1  /* md_parent_id  */
)

INSERT INTO gpkg_metadata_reference VALUES (
'row/col', /* reference type */
'poi', /* table name */
'point', /* column_name */
2, /* row_id_value  */
(strftime('%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%fZ','now')),
15,  /* md_file_id  */
1  /* md_parent_id  */
)

INSERT INTO gpkg_metadata_reference VALUES (
'row/col', /* reference type */
'poi', /* table name */
'point', /* column_name */
3, /* row_id_value  */
(strftime('%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%fZ','now')),
18,  /* md_file_id  */
1  /* md_parent_id  */
)

INSERT INTO gpkg_metadata_reference VALUES (
'row/col', /* reference type */
'poi', /* table name */
'category', /* column_name */
1, /* row_id_value  */
(strftime('%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%fZ','now')),
13,  /* md_file_id  */
1  /* md_parent_id  */
)

INSERT INTO gpkg_metadata_reference VALUES (
'row/col', /* reference type */
'poi', /* table name */
'category', /* column_name */
2, /* row_id_value  */
(strftime('%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%fZ','now')),
16,  /* md_file_id  */
1  /* md_parent_id  */
)

INSERT INTO gpkg_metadata_reference VALUES (
'row/col', /* reference type */
'poi', /* table name */
'category', /* column_name */
3, /* row_id_value  */
(strftime('%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%fZ','now')),
19,  /* md_file_id  */
1  /* md_parent_id  */
)

As long as all metadata collected in the field session either directly (as above) or indirectly (suppose there were a data set level metadata_reference record intermediary) refers to the field session metadata via md_parent_id values, then this chain of metadata references identifies the newly collected information, as Joan requested, in addition to the metadata.

So here is the data after both examples:

Table 21. xml_metadata
id md_scope md_standard_uri metadata

0

undefined

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

1

fieldSession

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

2

collectionSession

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

3

series

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

4

dataset

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

5

featureType

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

6

feature

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

7

attributeType

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

8

attribute

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

10

featureType

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

11

feature

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

12

attribute

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

13

attribute

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

14

feature

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

15

attribute

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

16

attribute

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

17

feature

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

18

attribute

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

19

attribute

http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd

TEXT

Table 22. gpkg_metadata_reference
reference_type table_name column_name row_id_value timestamp md_file_id md_parent_id

table

roads

undefined

0

ts

3

0

table

roads

undefined

0

ts

4

3

table

roads

undefined

0

ts

5

4

column

roads

overhead_clearance

0

ts

7

4

row

bridge

undefined

987

ts

6

4

row/col

bridge

overhead_clearance

987

ts

8

4

table

poi

undefined

0

ts

1

0

row

poi

undefined

0

ts

10

1

row

poi

undefined

1

ts

11

1

row

poi

undefined

2

ts

14

1

row/col

poi

undefined

3

ts

17

1

row/col

poi

point

1

ts

12

1

row/col

poi

point

2

ts

15

1

row/col

poi

point

3

ts

18

1

row/col

poi

category

1

ts

13

1

row/col

poi

category

2

ts

16

1

row/col

poi

category

3

ts

19

1

Raster or Tile Metadata Example

A number of raster image processing problems MAY require the support of more metadata that is contained in the image itself. Applications MAY use the gpkg_metadata and gpkg_metadata_reference tables defined in clause metadata to store raster image metadata defined according to standard authoritative or application or vendor specific metadata models. An example of the data items in such a model is shown in the following table.

  • Rational Polynomial Coefficient

  • Photometric Interpretation

  • No Data Value

  • Compression Quality Factor

  • Georectification

  • NIIRS

  • Min X

  • Min Y

  • Max X

  • Max Y

F.9. Schema

Introduction

The schema option provides a means to describe the columns of tables in a GeoPackage with more detail than can be captured by the SQL table definition directly. The information provided by this option can be used by applications to, for instance, present data contained in a GeoPackage in a more user-friendly fashion or implement data validation logic.

Extension Author

GeoPackage SWG, author_name gpkg

Extension Name

gpkg_schema

Extension Type

New Requirement Dependent on Clause Features

Applicability

This extension may apply to any Vector Feature User Data Tables.

Scope

Read-write

Requirements

Table Definitions
Data Columns
Requirement 103

A GeoPackage MAY contain a table or updateable view named gpkg_data_columns. If present it SHALL be defined per Data Columns Table or View Definition and gpkg_data_columns Table Definition SQL.

Table 23. Data Columns Table or View Definition
Column Name Column Type Column Description Null Key

table_name

TEXT

Name of the tiles or feature table

no

PK

column_name

TEXT

Name of the table column

no

PK

name

TEXT

A human-readable identifier (e.g. short name) for the column_name content

yes

UNIQUE

title

TEXT

A human-readable formal title for the column_name content

yes

description

TEXT

A human-readable description for the column_name content

yes

mime_type

TEXT

MIME [21] type of column_name if BLOB type, or NULL for other types

yes

constraint_name

TEXT

Column value constraint name (lowercase) specified by reference to gpkg_data_column_constraints.constraint name

yes

GeoPackage applications MAY [38] use the gpkg_data_columns table to store minimal application schema identifying, descriptive and MIME [21] type [39] information about columns in user vector feature and tile matrix data tables that supplements the data available from the SQLite sqlite_master table and pragma table_info(table_name) SQL function. The gpkg_data_columns data CAN be used to provide more specific column data types and value ranges and application specific structural and semantic information to enable more informative user menu displays and more effective user decisions on the suitability of GeoPackage contents for specific purposes.

Data Column Constraints
Requirement 107

A GeoPackage MAY contain a table or updateable view named gpkg_data_column_constraints. If present it SHALL be defined per Data Column Constraints Table or View Definition and gpkg_data_columns Table Definition SQL.

The gpkg_data_column_constraints table contains data to specify restrictions on basic data type column values. The constraint_name column is referenced by the constraint_name column in the gpkg_data_columns table defined in Data Columns Table or View Definition.

Table 24. Data Column Constraints Table or View Definition
Column Name Column Type Column Description Null Key

constraint_name

TEXT

Name of constraint (lowercase)

no

Unique

constraint_type

TEXT

Type name of constraint: range | enum | glob

no

Unique

value

TEXT

Specified case sensitive value for enum or glob or NULL for range constraint_type

yes

Unique

min

NUMERIC

Minimum value for range or NULL for enum or glob constraint_type

yes

min_is_inclusive

BOOLEAN

0 (false) if min value is exclusive, or 1 (true) if min value is inclusive

yes

max

NUMERIC

Maximum value for range or NULL for enum or glob constraint_type

yes

max_is_inclusive

BOOLEAN

0 (false) if max value is exclusive, or 1 (true) if max value is inclusive

yes

description

TEXT

For ranges and globs, describes the constraint; for enums, describes the enum value.

yes

The min and max columns are defined as NUMERIC to be able to contain range values for any numeric data column defined with a data type from Table 1. These are the only exceptions to the data type rule stated in Req 5.

Table Data Values
gpkg_extensions
Requirement 141

GeoPackages with a row in the gpkg_extensions table with an extension_name of "gpkg_schema" SHALL comply with this extension. The row SHALL have a scope of "read-write".

Data Columns
Requirement 104

Values of the gpkg_data_columns table table_name column value SHALL reference values in the gpkg_contents table_name column.

Requirement 105

The column_name column value in a gpkg_data_columns table row SHALL contain the name of a column in the SQLite table or view identified by the table_name column value.

Requirement 106

The constraint_name column value in a gpkg_data_columns table MAY be NULL. If it is not NULL, it SHALL contain a constraint_name column value (which SHALL be lowercase) from the gpkg_data_column_constraints table.

Data Column Constraints

The lowercase gpkg_data_column_constraints constraint_type column value specifies the type of constraint: "range", "enum", or "glob" (GLOB is a text pattern match - see [33]). The case sensitive value column contains an enumerated legal value for constraint_type "enum", a pattern match string for constraint_type "glob", or NULL for constraint_type "range". The set of value column values in rows of constraint_type "enum" with the same constraint_name contains all possible enumerated values for the constraint name. The min and max column values specify the minim and maximum valid values for constraint_type "range", or are NULL for constraint_type "enum" or "glob". The min_is_inclusive and max_is_inclusive column values contain 1 if the min and max values are inclusive, 0 if they are exclusive, or are NULL for constraint_type "enum" or "glob". These restrictions MAY be enforced by SQL triggers or by code in applications that update GeoPackage data values.

Table 25. Sample Data Column Constraints
constraint_name constraint_type value min min_is_inclusive max max_is_inclusive

sampleRange

range

NULL

1

true

10

true

sampleEnum

enum

1

NULL

NULL

NULL

NULL

sampleEnum

enum

3

NULL

NULL

NULL

NULL

sampleEnum

enum

5

NULL

NULL

NULL

NULL

sampleEnum

enum

7

NULL

NULL

NULL

NULL

sampleEnum

enum

9

NULL

NULL

NULL

NULL

sampleGlob

glob

[1-2][0-9][0-9][0-9]

NULL

NULL

NULL

NULL

Requirement 108

The gpkg_data_column_constraints table MAY be empty. If it contains data, the lowercase constraint_type column values SHALL be one of "range", "enum", or "glob".

Requirement 109

The gpkg_data_column_constraint constraint_name values for rows with constraint_type values of "range" and "glob" SHALL be unique.

Requirement 110

The gpkg_data_column_constraints table MAY be empty. If it contains rows with constraint_type column values of "range", the value column values for those rows SHALL be NULL.

Requirement 111

If the gpkg_data_column_constraints table contains rows with constraint_type column values of "range", the min column values for those rows SHALL be NOT NULL and less than the max column value which shall be NOT NULL.

Requirement 112

If the gpkg_data_column_constraints table contains rows with constraint_type column values of "range", the min_is_inclusive and max_is_inclusive column values for those rows SHALL be 0 or 1.

Requirement 113

If the gpkg_data_column_constraints table contains rows with constraint_type column values of "enum" or "glob", the min, max, min_is_inclusive and max_is_inclusive column values for those rows SHALL be NULL.

Requirement 114

If the gpkg_data_column_constraints table contains rows with constraint_type column values of "enum" or "glob", the value column SHALL NOT be NULL.

Abstract Test Suite

Table Definition
Data Columns

Test Case ID

/extensions/schema/data_columns/table_def

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_data_columns table exists and has the correct definition.

Test Method

  1. PRAGMA table_info(gpkg_data_columns)

  2. Fail if returns an empty result set

  3. Fail if column names and column definitions in the returned table_info do not match those of Table 23, including data type, nullability, default values. Column order, check constraint and trigger definitions, and other column definitions in the returned sql are irrelevant.

  4. Pass if no failures.

Reference

Annex F.9 Req 103

Test Type

Basic

Data Column Constraints

Test Case ID

/extensions/schema/data_column_constraints/table_def

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_data_column_constraints table exists and has the correct definition.

Test Method

  1. PRAGMA table_info(gpkg_data_column_constraints)

  2. Fail if returns an empty result set

  3. Fail if column names and column definitions in the returned table_info do not match those of Table 23, including data type, nullability, default values. Column order, check constraint and trigger definitions, and other column definitions in the returned sql are irrelevant.

  4. Pass if no failures.

Reference

Annex F.9 Req 107

Test Type

Basic

Data Values
gpkg_extensions

Test Case ID

/extensions/schema/extensions/data_values_scope

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_extensions table has the required row.

Test Method

  1. SELECT scope FROM gpkg_extensions WHERE extension_name = gpkg_schema;

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row returned from step 1

    1. Fail if scope is not "read-write".

  4. Pass if no fails

Reference

Annex F.9 Req 141

Test Type:

Capabilities

Test Case ID

/extensions/schema/data_columns/table_name

Test Purpose

Verify that for each gpkg_data_columns row, the table_name value matches a row in gpkg_contents.

Test Method

  1. SELECT DISTINCT gdc.table_name AS gdc_table, gc.table_name AS gc_table FROM gpkg_data_columns AS gdc LEFT OUTER JOIN gpkg_contents AS gc ON gdc.table_name = gc.tbl_name;

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row from step 1

    1. Fail if gc_table is NULL.

  4. Pass if no fails.

Reference

Annex F.9 Req 104

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/extensions/schema/data_columns/column_name

Test Purpose

Verify that for each gpkg_data_columns row, the column_name matches a column in the table or view identified by the table_name column value.

Test Method

  1. SELECT table_name, column_name FROM gpkg_data_columns

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each row from step 1

    1. PRAGMA table_info(table_name)

    2. Fail if table_name does not contain a column matching column_name

  4. Pass if no fails

Reference

Annex F.9 Req 105

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/extensions/schema/data_columns/constraint_name

Test Purpose

Verify that for each gpkg_data_columns row, if the constraint_name value is NOT NULL then the constraint_type column value contains a constraint_type column value from the gpkg_data_column_constraints table for a row with a matching constraint_name value.

Test Method

  1. SELECT constraint_name AS cn, constraint_type AS ct FROM gpkg_data_columns

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each NOT NULL cn value from step 1

    1. Fail if ct is NULL

    2. If ct NOT NULL, SELECT constraint_type FROM gpkg_data_column_constraints WHERE constraint_name = cn AND constraint_type = ct

    3. Fail if returns an empty result set

  4. Pass if no fails

Reference

Annex F.9 Req 106

Test Type

Capability

Data Column Constraints

Test Case ID

/extensions/schema/data_column_constraints/constraint_type

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_data_column_constraints constraint_type column values are one of "range", "enum", or "glob".

Test Method

  1. SELECT DISTINCT constraint_type FROM gpkg_data_column_constraints

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each constraint_type value returned by step 1

    1. Fail if constraint_type NOT IN ("range", "enum", "glob").

  4. Pass if no fails.

Reference

Annex F.9 Req 108

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/extensions/schema/data_column_constraints/constraint_names_unique

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_data_column_constraints constraint_name column values for constraint_type values of "range", or "glob" are unique.

Test Method

  1. SELECT DISTINCT constraint_name FROM gpkg_data_column_constraints WHERE constraint_type IN (range, glob)

    1. For each returned constraint_name cn

    2. SELECT count(*) FROM gpkg_data column_constraints WHERE constraint_name = cn

    3. Fail if count > 1

  2. Pass if no fails.

Reference

Annex F.9 Req 109

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/extensions/schema/data_column_constraints/value_for_range

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_data_column_constraints value column values are NULL for rows with a constraint_type value of "range".

Test Method

  1. SELECT constraint_name, value FROM gpkg_data_column_constraints WHERE constraint_type = range

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each value returned by step 1

    1. Fail if value IS NOT NULL

  4. Pass if no fails.

Reference

Annex F.9 Req 110

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/extensions/schema/data_column_constraints/min_max_for_range

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_data_column_constraints min column values are NOT NULL and less than the max column values for rows with a constraint_type value of "range".

Test Method

  1. SELECT constraint_name, min, max FROM gpkg_data_column_constraints WHERE constraint_type = range

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each set of min and max values returned by step 1

    1. Fail if min IS NULL

    2. Fail if max IS NULL

    3. Fail if min >= max

  4. Pass if no fails.

Reference

Annex F.9 Req 111

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/extensions/schema/data_column_constraints/inclusive_for_range

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_data_column_constraints min_is_inclusive and max_is_inclusive column values are NOT NULL and either 0 or 1 for rows with a constraint_type value of "range".

Test Method

  1. SELECT constraint_name, min_is_inclusive, max_is_inclusive FROM gpkg_data_column_constraints WHERE constraint_type = range

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each set of values returned by step 1

    1. Fail if min_is_inclusive IS NULL

    2. Fail if max_is_inclusive IS NULL

    3. Fail if min_is_inclusive is NOT IN (0,1)

    4. Fail if max_is_inclusive is NOT IN (0,1)

  4. Pass if no fails.

Reference

Annex F.9 Req 112

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID:

/extensions/schema/data_column_constraints/min_max_inclusive_for_enum_glob

Test Purpose:

Verify that the gpkg_data_column_constraints min, max, min_is_inclusive and max_is_inclusive column values are NULL for rows with a constraint_type value of "enum" or "glob".

Test Method:

  1. SELECT constraint_name, min, max, min_is_inclusive, max_is_inclusive FROM gpkg_data_column_constraints WHERE constraint_type IN (enum,glob)

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each set of values returned by step 1

    1. Fail if min IS NOT NULL

    2. Fail if max IS NOT NULL

    3. Fail if min_is_inclusive IS NOT NULL

    4. Fail if max_is_inclusive IS NOT NULL

  4. Pass if no fails.

Reference

Annex F.9 Req 113

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID:

/extensions/schema/data_column_constraints/value_for_enum_glob

Test Purpose:

Verify that the gpkg_data_column_constraints value column values are NOT NULL for rows with a constraint_type value of "enum" or "glob".

Test Method:

  1. SELECT value FROM gpkg_data_column_constraints WHERE constraint_type IN (enum,glob)

  2. Not testable if returns an empty result set

  3. For each value returned by step 1

    1. Fail if value IS NULL

  4. Pass if no fails.

Reference

Annex F.9 Req 114

Test Type

Capability

Table Definition SQL

gpkg_data_columns
gpkg_data_columns Table Definition SQL
CREATE TABLE gpkg_data_columns (
  table_name TEXT NOT NULL,
  column_name TEXT NOT NULL,
  name TEXT UNIQUE,
  title TEXT,
  description TEXT,
  mime_type TEXT,
  constraint_name TEXT,
  CONSTRAINT pk_gdc PRIMARY KEY (table_name, column_name),
  CONSTRAINT fk_gdc_tn FOREIGN KEY (table_name) REFERENCES gpkg_contents(table_name)
);
gpkg_data_column_constraints
gpkg_data_columns Table Definition SQL
CREATE TABLE gpkg_data_column_constraints (
  constraint_name TEXT NOT NULL,
  constraint_type TEXT NOT NULL, // 'range' | 'enum' | 'glob'
  value TEXT,
  min NUMERIC,
  min_is_inclusive BOOLEAN, // 0 = false, 1 = true
  max NUMERIC,
  max_is_inclusive BOOLEAN, // 0 = false, 1 = true
  description TEXT,
  CONSTRAINT gdcc_ntv UNIQUE (constraint_name, constraint_type, value)
)

F.10. WKT for Coordinate Reference Systems

Introduction

The OGC GeoPackage standard was adopted prior to the adoption of "OGC Well known text representation of Coordinate Reference Systems" [34], in 13 August, 2014. As a result, the OGC GeoPackage standard references an older document [32] which has known ambiguities that are being encountered in the field. This extension establishes a new column to contain values that conform to the new standard.

Extension Author

GeoPackage SWG, author_name gpkg.

Extension Name or Template

gpkg_crs_wkt

Extension Type

Extension of Existing Requirement in clause Table Definition.

Applicability

Applies to the gpkg_spatial_ref_sys table.

Scope

Read-write

Requirements

Table
Table Definition
Requirement 115

For GeoPackages conforming to this extension, the gpkg_spatial_ref_sys table SHALL have an additional column called definition_12_063 as per Spatial Ref Sys Table Definition and gpkg_spatial_ref_sys Table Definition SQL (CRS WKT Extension).

Table 26. Spatial Ref Sys Table Definition
Column Name Column Type Column Description Not Null Default Key

srs_name

TEXT

Human readable name of this SRS

yes

srs_id

INTEGER

Unique identifier for each Spatial Reference System within a GeoPackage

yes

PK

organization

TEXT

Case-insensitive name of the defining organization e.g. EPSG or epsg

yes

organization_coordsys_id

INTEGER

Numeric ID of the Spatial Reference System assigned by the organization

yes

definition

TEXT

Well-known Text [32] Representation of the Spatial Reference System

yes

undefined

description

TEXT

Human readable description of this SRS

no

definition_12_063

TEXT

Well-known Text [34] Representation of the Spatial Reference System

yes

undefined

Table Data Values
Requirement 116

Values of the definition_12_063 column SHALL be constructed per the WKT syntax in [34].

Requirement 117

At least one definition column SHALL be defined with a valid definition unless the value of the srs_id column is 0 or -1. Both columns SHOULD be defined. If it is not possible to produce a valid [32] definition then the value of the definition column MAY be undefined. If it is not possible to produce a valid [34] definition then the value of the definition_12_063 column MAY be undefined.

If, for a particular row, both the definition and definition_12_063 columns are populated, the value in the definition_12_063 column takes priority.

Abstract Test Suite

Table Definition

Table Definition

Test Case ID

/extension_crs_wkt/table_def

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_spatial_ref_sys table exists and has the correct definition. Extends /base/core/gpkg_spatial_ref_sys/data/table_def.

Test Method

  1. PRAGMA table_info('gpkg_spatial_ref_sys')

  2. Fail if returns an empty result set

  3. Fail if result set does not include a column named definition_12_063 or if the column is not of type TEXT, notnull 1, and dflt_value undefined.

  4. Pass if no failures.

Reference

Annex F.10 Req 115

Test Type

Basic

Table Data Values

Test Case ID

/extension_crs_wkt/data_values_default

Test Purpose

Verify that the gpkg_spatial_ref_sys table contains the required default contents. Extends /base/core/gpkg_spatial_ref_sys/data_values_default.

Test Method

  1. SELECT organization, organization_coordsys_id, definition, definition_12_063 FROM gpkg_spatial_ref_sys WHERE srs_id = -1

    1. Confirm that this returns "NONE" -1 "undefined" "undefined"

  2. SELECT srs_id, organization, organization_coordsys_id, definition, definition_12_063 FROM gpkg_spatial_ref_sys WHERE srs_id = 0

    1. Confirm that this returns "NONE" 0 "undefined" "undefined"

  3. SELECT definition FROM gpkg_spatial_ref_sys WHERE organization IN ("epsg","EPSG") AND organization_coordsys_id 4326

    1. Confirm that this is a valid CRS

  4. SELECT definition_12_063 FROM gpkg_spatial_ref_sys WHERE organization IN ("epsg","EPSG") AND organization_coordsys_id 4326

    1. Confirm that this is a valid 12-063 CRS

  5. Pass if tests 1-4 are met

  6. Fail otherwise

Reference

Annex F.10 Req 116

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/extension_crs_wkt/data_values_required

Test Purpose

Verify that the spatial_ref_sys table contains rows to define all srs_id values used by features and tiles in a GeoPackage. Extends /base/core/gpkg_spatial_ref_sys/data_values_required.

Test Method

  1. SELECT definition, definition_12_063 FROM gpkg_spatial_ref_sys WHERE srs_id NOT IN (0, -1)

  2. For each result

    1. Fail if both definition values are undefined

  3. Pass if no failures

Reference

Annex F.10 Req 117

Test Type

Capability

Table Definition SQL

gpkg_spatial_ref_sys
gpkg_spatial_ref_sys Table Definition SQL (CRS WKT Extension)
CREATE TABLE gpkg_spatial_ref_sys (
  srs_name TEXT NOT NULL,
  srs_id INTEGER NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
  organization TEXT NOT NULL,
  organization_coordsys_id INTEGER NOT NULL,
  definition  TEXT NOT NULL DEFAULT 'undefined',
  description TEXT,
  definition_12_063 TEXT NOT NULL DEFAULT 'undefined'
);

F.11. Tiled Gridded Elevation Data

On May 2, 2017 the OGC Architecture Board (OAB) voted to remove this extension from the this draft standard document so that it can be worked on separately. This subannex will remain here temporarily but will be removed once a new draft document is established.

Extension Title

Tiled Gridded Elevation Data

Introduction

This extension provides the ability to store 16-bit and 32-bit tiled gridded elevation data in a GeoPackage. This capability will be used to support use cases such as the following:

  • Visualization

    • 2D (hillshade, color relief, slope)

    • 3D (supporting changing view angles and level of detail)

  • Analysis

    • Viewshed and line-of-sight

    • Cross-country mobility (off-road routing)

    • Site suitability and planning (slope analysis such as helicopter landing zones)

    • 3D geometry representations of features (ground-based, airspace)

    • Terrain association (associating images to mapped locations)

    • Augmented reality training

This capability was designed to be relatively easy to implement and to be suitable for a wide variety of computing environments including the mobile/handheld computing environment[40].

This extension to the OGC GeoPackage Encoding Standard leverages the existing structure for raster tiles using PNG (16-bit) and TIFF (32-bit) files as the container for the elevation values themselves. It is the data producer’s responsibility to ensure that the intended recipient is able to read GeoPackages with the elevation encoding (PNG or TIFF) being used. By default, the elevation values are assumed to be average elevation for pixel-is-area. Communities of interest may agree to use an alternative pixel encoding (such as pixel-is-point) but specifying the pixel encoding is outside of the scope of this document.

Extension Author

GeoPackage SWG, author_name gpkg.

Extension Name or Template

gpkg_elevation_tiles

Extension Type

New requirement dependent on Clause 2.2.

Applicability

This extension applies to tile pyramid user data tables that are used to hold tiled, gridded elevation data.

Scope

read-write

Requirements

Table Definitions
Coverage Ancillary
Requirement 120

A GeoPackage that contains tiled gridded elevation data SHALL contain a gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary table or view as per Coverage Ancillary Table Definition. Subsequent extensions or custom implementations MAY add additional columns to this table. Clients SHALL ignore additional columns that are unrecognized.

Table 27. Coverage Ancillary Table Definition
Column Name Column Type Column Description Null Default Key Constraint

id

INTEGER

Autoincrement primary key

no

PK

tile_matrix_set_name

TEXT

Foreign key to table_name in gpkg_tile_matrix_set

no

FK

UNIQUE

datatype

TEXT

integer or float

no

integer

scale

REAL

Scale as a multiple relative to the unit of measure

no

1

offset

REAL

The offset to the 0 value

no

0

precision

REAL[41]

The smallest value that has meaning for this dataset

yes

1

data_null

REAL[42]

The value that indicates NULL

yes

Using the Scale and Offset Values

Integer elevation values MAY be scaled and offset in order to make more efficient use of 16-bit integer space available in PNG files. The scale and offset MAY be applied to the entire coverage and/or the individual tile. The scale and offset do not apply to the data_null value as defined in Coverage Ancillary Table Definition.

Actual elevation values are be calculated by:

  • first multiplying the stored value by the gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary_table.scale value and then adding the gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary_table.offset,

  • followed by multiplying that value by the gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary.scale value and then adding the gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary.offset.

In pseudo-code, this conversion would look like:

elevationInUnitOfMeasure = (SomeElevationCoverage.tile_data->pngpixels[i] * gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary.scale + gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary.offset) * gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary.scale + gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary.offset;

Note: integer and float refer to the values stored in the tiles. If integer values have a real scale or offset applied to them, then the resulting values will be real. The scale and offset do not apply to tiles of datatype float.

Tile Ancillary
Requirement 121

A GeoPackage that contains tiled gridded elevation data SHALL contain a gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary table or view as per Tile Ancillary Table Definition. Subsequent extensions or custom implementations MAY add additional columns to this table. Clients SHALL ignore additional columns that are unrecognized.

Table 28. Tile Ancillary Table Definition
Column Name Column Type Column Description Null Default Key

id

INTEGER

Autoincrement primary key

no

PK

tpudt_name

TEXT

Name of tile pyramid user data table

no

UNIQUE[43]

tpudt_id

INTEGER

Foreign key to id in tile pyramid user data table

no

UNIQUE[44]

scale

REAL

Scale as a multiple relative to the unit of measure

no

1

offset

REAL

The offset to the 0 value

no

0

min

REAL[45]

Minimum value of this tile

yes

max

REAL[46]

Maximum value of this tile

yes

mean

REAL

The arithmetic mean of values in this tile

yes

std_dev

REAL

The standard deviation of values in this tile

yes

The min, max, and mean values are natural, i.e., not scaled or offset. Similarly, the std_dev is calculated based on the natural values. The scale and offset do not apply to tiles of datatype float.

Table Values
gpkg_spatial_ref_sys
Requirement 122

GeoPackages complying with this extension SHALL have a row in the gpkg_spatial_ref_sys table as described in Spatial Ref Sys Table Record:

Because of limitations in expressing 3D coordinate reference systems in Well-known Text [32], it is recommended that GeoPackages complying with this extension also comply with WKT for Coordinate Reference Systems.

Table 29. Spatial Ref Sys Table Record
srs_name srs_id organization organization_coordsys_id definition description

any

4979

EPSG or epsg

4979

any

any

Requirement 123

The gpkg_spatial_ref_sys table in a GeoPackage SHALL contain records to define all spatial reference systems used by tiled gridded elevation data in a GeoPackage. The spatial reference system SHALL be used to define the vertical datum, reference geoid, and units of measure for the tiled gridded elevation data.

gpkg_contents
Requirement 124

(extends GPKG-34) The gpkg_contents table SHALL contain a row with a data_type column value of 2d-gridded-coverage for each tile pyramid containing tiled gridded elevation data. The srs_id column value for that row SHOULD reference an SRS that has a vertical datum[47].

gpkg_extensions
Requirement 125

GeoPackages complying with this extension SHALL have rows in the gpkg_extensions table as described in Extensions Table Record.

Table 30. Extensions Table Record
table_name column_name extension_name definition scope

gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary

null

gpkg_elevation_tiles

http://www.geopackage.org/spec/#extension_tiled_gridded_elevation_data

read-write

gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary

null

gpkg_elevation_tiles

http://www.geopackage.org/spec/#extension_tiled_gridded_elevation_data

read-write

name of actual tile pyramid user data table containing elevation data

tile_data

gpkg_elevation_tiles

http://www.geopackage.org/spec/#extension_tiled_gridded_elevation_data

read-write

gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary

The following requirements refer to the gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary table as per Coverage Ancillary Table Definition.

Requirement 126

For each row in gpkg_contents with a data_type column value of 2d-gridded-coverage, there SHALL be a row in gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary. Values of the tile_matrix_set_name column SHALL reference values in the gpkg_contents table_name column.

Requirement 127

Values of the gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary tile_matrix_set_name column SHALL reference values in the gpkg_tile_matrix_set table_name column.

Requirement 128

Values of the gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary datatype column MAY be integer or float. When the datatype is float, the scale and offset values SHALL be set to the defaults.

gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary

The following requirements refer to the gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary table as per Tile Ancillary Table Definition.

Requirement 129

For each row in a tile pyramid user data table corresponding to tiled, gridded elevation data, there SHALL be a row in gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary.

Requirement 130

Values of the gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary tpudt_name column SHALL reference existing tile pyramid user data tables and rows in gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary. When the datatype of the corresponding gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary row is float, the scale and offset values SHALL be set to the defaults.

Requirement 131

Values of the gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary tpudt_id column SHALL reference values in id column of the table referenced in tpudt_name.

Tile Pyramid User Data Tables
Requirement 132

For data where the datatype column of the corresponding row in the gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary table is integer, the tile_data BLOB in the tile pyramid user data table containing tiled, gridded elevation data SHALL be of MIME type image/png and the data SHALL be 16-bit unsigned integer (single channel - "greyscale").

Requirement 133

(extends GPKG-36 and GPKG-37) For data where the datatype column of the corresponding row in the gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary table is float, the tile_data BLOB in the tile pyramid user data table containing tiled, gridded elevation data SHALL be of MIME type image/tiff and the data SHALL be 32-bit floating point as described by the TIFF Encoding (TIFF Encoding).

Table Definition SQL

Coverage Ancillary Table Definition SQL
CREATE TABLE 'gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary' (
  id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY AUTOINCREMENT NOT NULL,
  tile_matrix_set_name TEXT NOT NULL UNIQUE,
  datatype TEXT NOT NULL DEFAULT 'integer',
  scale REAL NOT NULL DEFAULT 1.0,
  offset REAL NOT NULL DEFAULT 0.0,
  precision REAL DEFAULT 1.0,
  data_null REAL,
  CONSTRAINT fk_g2dgtct_name FOREIGN KEY('tile_matrix_set_name') REFERENCES gpkg_tile_matrix_set ( table_name )
  CHECK (datatype in ('integer','float')));
Tile Ancillary Table Definition SQL
CREATE TABLE gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary (
  id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY AUTOINCREMENT NOT NULL,
  tpudt_name TEXT NOT NULL,
  tpudt_id INTEGER NOT NULL,
  scale REAL NOT NULL DEFAULT 1.0,
  offset REAL NOT NULL DEFAULT 0.0,
  min REAL DEFAULT NULL,
  max REAL DEFAULT NULL,
  mean REAL DEFAULT NULL,
  std_dev REAL DEFAULT NULL,
  CONSTRAINT fk_g2dgtat_name FOREIGN KEY (tpudt_name) REFERENCES gpkg_contents(table_name),
  UNIQUE (tpudt_name, tpudt_id));
TIFF Encoding

Because of the wide range of possible TIFF encodings, the TIFF encoding for an elevation tile has been constrained for the sake of interoperability and best practice. Each TIFF encoded tile is a baseline TIFF as defined in the Part 1 of TIFF[35]. The only allowed encoding extensions are:

Tiles are encoded as a single-band image using one 32-bit floating point component per pixel. This implies a number of constraints which are listed below:

  • There is only one band per TIFF tile, i.e., for any pixel in the TIFF tile, there SHALL be only one component (see Requirement 135).

  • All pixels in the tile SHALL be set with a valid component value (see [r143]).

  • Other TIFF tags are derived from the other constraints in this extension.

  • No multi-image/tiling extensions defined in TIFF[35] shall be used (see Requirement 138, Requirement 143).

Requirement 134

A TIFF file used for storing tiled gridded elevation data SHALL conform to the TIFF specification [35].

Requirement 135

(constrains TIFF[35] Section 2) A TIFF file storing tiled gridded elevation data SHALL have one sample per pixel.

By setting TAG 277 (SamplesPerPixel) to be 1, the producer indicates that there is a single sample per pixel.

Requirement 136

(constrains TIFF[35] Section 19) A TIFF file storing tiled gridded elevation data SHALL have the 32-bit floating (FLOAT – 11) data type.

By setting TAG 339 (SampleFormat) to be 3, the producer indicates that the Sample Value is IEEE floating point as defined in Part 2 (TIFF Extensions) Section 19: Data Sample Format TIFF[35]. By setting TAG 258 (BitsPerSample) to be 32, the producer indicates that there are 32 bits per sample.

Requirement 137

A TIFF file storing tiled gridded elevation data MAY use the LZW compression option as per TIFF[35] Section 13.

Client applications that support the TIFF encoding are expected to support this option.

Requirement 138

(constrains TIFF[35] Section 2) A TIFF file storing tiled gridded elevation data SHALL NOT contain multiple images per TIFF file.

Requirement 139

(constrains TIFF[35] Section 15) A TIFF file storing tiled gridded elevation data SHALL NOT contain internal tiles as per TIFF Section 15.

Requirement 143

All pixels in an elevation tile SHALL be set with a valid component value. The mechanisms defined in this extension SHALL be used to indicate a missing value for a pixel.

Abstract Test Suite

Table Definitions
Coverage Ancillary

Test Case ID

/extensions/elevation/table_def/gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary

Test Purpose:

Verify that the "gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary" table has the proper definition.

Test Method:

  1. PRAGMA table_info(gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary)

  2. Fail if table does not have all of the columns specified in Table 27

  3. Pass if logged pass and no fails

Reference

Annex F.11 Req 120

Test Type

Basic

Tile Ancillary

Test Case ID

/extensions/elevation/table_def/gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary

Test Purpose:

Verify that the "gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary" table has the proper definition.

Test Method:

  1. PRAGMA table_info(gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary)

  2. Fail if table does not have all of the columns specified in Table 28

  3. Pass if logged pass and no fails

Reference

Annex F.11 Req 121

Test Type

Basic

Table Values
Spatial Reference

Test Case ID

/extensions/elevation/table_val/gpkg_spatial_ref_sys/rows

Test Purpose:

Verify that the "gpkg_spatial_ref_sys" table has the required rows.

Test Method:

  1. SELECT COUNT(*) FROM gpkg_spatial_ref_sys WHERE organization_coordsys_id = 4979 AND (organization = EPSG OR organization = epsg)

  2. Fail if count is zero

  3. Pass if logged pass and no fails

Reference

Annex F.11 Req 122

Test Type

Basic

Test Case ID

/extensions/elevation/table_val/gpkg_spatial_ref_sys/refs

Test Purpose:

Verify that all elevation data uses an SRS that is defined in gpkg_spatial_ref_sys

Test Method:

  1. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = 2d-gridded-coverage;

  2. For each table_name

    1. SELECT COUNT(*) FROM gpkg_tile_matrix_set WHERE table_name = {table_name}

    2. Fail if count is not 1

  3. Pass if no fails

Reference:

Annex F.11 Req 123

Test Type

Capability

Contents

Test Case ID

/extensions/elevation/table_val/gpkg_spatial_ref_sys

Test Purpose:

Verify that all elevation data uses an SRS that is defined in gpkg_spatial_ref_sys

Test Method:

  1. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = 2d-gridded-coverage;

  2. Not testable if result set is empty

  3. Manually inspect that all elevation data is accounted for in the result set

Reference:

Annex F.11 Req 124

Test Type

Capability

Extensions

Test Case ID

/extensions/elevation/table_val/gpkg_extensions

Test Purpose:

Verify that all required rows are present in gpkg_extensions

Test Method:

  1. SELECT table_name, column_name, extension_name, definition, scope from gpkg_extensions";

  2. Verify that the required rows in Table 30 for table_name gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary and gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary are present.

  3. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = 2d-gridded-coverage;

  4. For each table_name

    1. SELECT column_name, definition, scope from gpkg_extensions WHERE extension_name = gpkg_elevation_tiles AND table_name = {table_name}

    2. Fail if no rows found

    3. Fail if the results do not match the entry in Table 30 for a user defined table

  5. Pass if no fails

Reference:

Annex F.11 Req 125

Test Type

Capability

Coverage Ancillary

Test Case ID

/extensions/elevation/table_ref/gpkg_contents/gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary

Test Purpose:

Verify that all required rows are present in gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary

Test Method:

  1. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = 2d-gridded-coverage;

  2. For each table_name

    1. SELECT COUNT(*) FROM gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary WHERE tile_matrix_set_name = {table_name}

    2. Fail if count is not 1

  3. Pass if no fails

Reference:

Annex F.11 Req 126

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/extensions/elevation/table_ref/gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary/gpkg_tile_matrix_set

Test Purpose:

Verify that gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary references gpkg_tile_matrix_set

Test Method:

  1. SELECT tile_matrix_set_name FROM gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary;

  2. For each tile_matrix_set_name

    1. SELECT count(*) FROM gpkg_tile_matrix_set WHERE table_name = {tile_matrix_set_name}

    2. Fail if count is not 1

  3. Pass if no fails

Reference:

Annex F.11 Req 127

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/extensions/elevation/table_val/gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary

Test Purpose:

Verify that gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary contains valid column values

Test Method:

  1. SELECT datatype, scale, offset FROM gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary WHERE tile_matrix_set_name IN (SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = 2d-gridded-coverage);

  2. For each result in 1

    1. Fail if datatype is not "integer" or "float"

    2. Fail if datatype is "float" and scale is not 1.0

    3. Fail if datatype is "float" and offset is not 0.0

  3. Pass if no fails

Reference:

Annex F.11 Req 128

Test Type

Capability

Tile Ancillary

Test Case ID

/extensions/elevation/table_ref/tpudt/gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary

Test Purpose:

Verify that all required rows are present in gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary

Test Method:

  1. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = 2d-gridded-coverage;

  2. For each table_name

    1. SELECT {table_name}.id as tid, gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary.tpudt_id as taid from elev_png LEFT OUTER JOIN gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary ON {table_name}.id = gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary.tpudt_id AND gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary.tpudt_name = {table_name}

    2. For each row

      1. Fail if taid is null

  3. Pass if no fails

Reference:

Annex F.11 Req 129, 131

Test Type

Capability

Test Case ID

/extensions/elevation/table_val/gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary

Test Purpose:

Verify that all required rows in gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary have valid values

Test Method:

  1. SELECT tpudt_name, scale, offset FROM gpkg_2d_gridded_tile_ancillary;

  2. For each row

    1. PRAGMA table_info({tpudt_name})

    2. Fail if tpudt_name is not a table or view

    3. SELECT datatype from gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary WHERE tile_matrix_set_name = {tpudt_name}

    4. Fail if no rows found

    5. Fail if datatype is "float" and scale is not 1.0

    6. Fail if datatype is "float" and offset is not 0.0

  3. Pass if no fails

Reference:

Annex F.11 Req 130

Test Type

Capability

Tile Pyramid User Data Table

Test Case ID

/extensions/elevation/table_val/tpudt

Test Purpose:

Verify that all rows in tile pyramid user data tables have valid values

Test Method:

  1. SELECT table_name FROM gpkg_contents WHERE data_type = 2d-gridded-coverage;

  2. For each table_name

    1. SELECT t.datatype AS datatype, u.id AS id, u.tile_data AS tile_data FROM gpkg_2d_gridded_coverage_ancillary t, {table_name} u WHERE t.tile_matrix_set_name = table_name;

    2. For each row

      1. If datatype is float, fail if tile_data is not a valid TIFF image as per requirements 134-139

      2. If datatype is integer, fail if tile_data is not a valid PNG image

  3. Pass if no fails

Reference:

Annex F.11 Req 132, 133, 134-139, 143

Test Type

Capability

Annex G: Geometry Types (Normative)

Table 31. Geometry Type Codes (Core)
Code Name

0

GEOMETRY

1

POINT

2

LINESTRING

3

POLYGON

4

MULTIPOINT

5

MULTILINESTRING

6

MULTIPOLYGON

7

GEOMETRYCOLLECTION

Table 32. Geometry Type Codes (Extension)
Code Name

8

CIRCULARSTRING

9

COMPOUNDCURVE

10

CURVEPOLYGON

11

MULTICURVE

12

MULTISURFACE

13

CURVE

14

SURFACE

GEOMETRY subtypes are POINT, CURVE, SURFACE and GEOMCOLLECTION.

CURVE subtypes are LINESTRING, CIRCULARSTRING and COMPOUNDCURVE.

SURFACE subtype is CURVEPOLYGON.

CURVEPOLYGON subtype is POLYGON.

GEOMETRYCOLLECTION subtypes are MULTIPOINT, MULTICURVE and MULTISURFACE.

MULTICURVE subtype is MULTILINESTRING.

MULTISURFACE subtype is MULTIPOLYGON.

Annex H: Tiles Zoom Times Two Example (Informative)

Table 33. Zoom Times Two Example
table_name zoom_level matrix_width matrix_height tile_width tile_height pixel_x_size pixel_y_size

MyTiles

0

8

8

512

512

69237.2

68412.1

MyTiles

1

16

16

512

512

34618.6

34206.0

MyTiles

2

32

32

512

512

17309.3

17103.0

MyTiles

3

64

64

512

512

8654.64

8654.64

MyTiles

4

128

128

512

512

4327.32

4275.75

MyTiles

5

256

256

512

512

2163.66

2137.87

MyTiles

6

512

512

512

512

1081.83

1068.93

MyTiles

7

1024

1024

512

512

540.915

543.469

MyTiles

8

2048

2048

512

512

270.457

267.234

Annex I: Normative References (Normative)

The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of OGC 12-128. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these publications do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this part of OGC 12-128 are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For undated references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies.

Annex J: Bibliography (Informative)


1. SQLite version 4 (reference B25), which will be an alternative to version 3, not a replacement thereof, was not available when this standard was written. See Future Work clause in Annex B.
2. SQLite is in the public domain (see http://www.sqlite.org/copyright.html)
3. With SQLite versions 3.7.17 and later this value MAY be set with the "PRAGMA application_id=1196444487;" SQL statement, where 1196444487 is the 32-bit integer value of 0x47504B47. With earlier versions of SQLite the application id can be set by writing the byte sequence 0x47, 0x50, 0x4B, 0x47 at offset 68 in the SQLite database file (see http://www.sqlite.org/fileformat2.html#database_header for details).
4. Older GeoPackages use a different versioning mechanism. Instead of using the user_version, they have an application ID of "GP10" (for GeoPackage 1.0 and 1.0.1) or "GP11" (for GeoPackage 1.1).
5. The SQLite PRAGMA integrity_check SQL command does a full database scan that can take a long time to complete on a large GeoPackage file.
6. New applications should use the latest available SQLite version software <<8>>
7. The following statement selects an ISO 8601 timestamp value using the SQLite strftime function: SELECT (strftime('%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%fZ','now')).
8. GeometryCollection is a generic term for the ST_GeomCollection type defined in [12\], which uses it for the definition of Well Known Text (WKT) and Well Known Binary (WKB) encodings. The SQL type name GEOMCOLLECTION defined in [10\] and used in Clause 1.1.2.1.1 and Annex G below refers to the SQL BLOB encoding of a GeometryCollection.
9. OGC WKB simple feature geometry types specified in <<9>> are a subset of the ISO WKB geometry types specified in <<12>>
10. WKB geometry types are are restricted to 0, 1 and 2-dimensional geometric objects that exist in 2, 3 or 4-dimensional coordinate space; they are not geographic or geodesic geometry types.
11. The axis order in WKB is always (x,y{,z}{,m}) where x is easting or longitude, y is northing or latitude, z is optional elevation and m is optional measure.
12. A GeoPackage is not required to contain any feature data tables. Feature data tables in a GeoPackage MAY be empty.
13. GeoPackage applications MAY use SQL triggers or tests in application code to meet this requirement
14. Images of multiple MIME types MAY be stored in given table. For example, in a tiles table, image/png format tiles COULD be used for transparency where there is no data on the tile edges, and image/jpeg format tiles COULD be used for storage efficiency where there is image data for all pixels. Images of multiple bit depths of the same MIME type MAY also be stored in a given table, for example image/png tiles in both 8 and 24 bit depths.
15. See <> for use of other zoom levels as a registered extensions.
16. See <> regarding use of the WebP alternative tile MIME type as a registered extension.
17. See <> regarding use of the WebP alternative tile MIME type as a registered extension.
18. The "tiles" stipulation was removed because it prevented the use of the tile matrix mechanism by extensions for other data types.
19. The "tiles" stipulation was removed because it prevented the use of the tile matrix mechanism by extensions for other data types.
20. GeoPackage applications MAY query the gpkg_tile_matrix table or the tile pyramid user data table to determine the minimum and maximum zoom levels for a given tile pyramid table.
21. GeoPackage applications MAY query a tile pyramid user data table to determine which tiles are available at each zoom level.
22. GeoPackage applications that insert, update, or delete tile pyramid user data table tiles row records are responsible for maintaining the corresponding descriptive contents of the gpkg_tile_matrix_metadata table.
23. The `gpkg_tile_matrix_set` table contains coordinates that define a bounding box as the exact stated spatial extent for all tiles in a tile (matrix set) table. If the geographic extent of the image data contained in tiles at a particular zoom level is within but not equal to this bounding box, then the non-image area of matrix edge tiles must be padded with no-data values, preferably transparent ones.
24. A GeoPackage is not required to contain any tile pyramid user data tables. Tile pyramid user data tables in a GeoPackage MAY be empty.
25. The zoom_level / tile_column / tile_row unique key is automatically indexed, and allows tiles to be selected and accessed by "z, x, y", a common convention used by some implementations. This table / view definition MAY also allow tiles to be selected based on a spatially indexed bounding box in a separate metadata table.
26. If an application process will make many updates, it is often faster to drop the indexes, do the updates, and then recreate the indexes.
27. Informative examples of hierarchical metadata are provided in <<metadata_example_appendix>>
28. An informative example of raster image metadata is provided in <<tiles_example_appendix>>
29. For example, for ISO 19139 metadata the URI value should be the metadata schema namespace http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd
30. In SQLite, the rowid value is always equal to the value of a single-column primary key on an integer column [B30\] and is not changed by a database reorganization performed by the VACUUM SQL command.
31. Such a metadata hierarchy MAY have only one level of defined metadata
32. The scope codes in <<metadata_scopes>> include a very wide set of descriptive information types as "metadata" to describe data.
33. ISO 19139 format metadata (B32) is recommended for general-purpose description of geospatial data at the series and dataset metadata scopes.
34. The "catalog" md_scope MAY be used for Feature Catalog (B40) information stored as XML metadata that is linked to features stored in a GeoPackage.
35. The "schema" md_scope MAY be used for Application Schema (B37)(B38)(B39)(B44) information stored as XML metadata that is linked to features stored in a GeoPackage.
36. The "taxonomy" md_scope MAY be used for taxonomy or knowledge system (B41)(B42) "linked data" information stored as XML metadata that is linked to features stored in a GeoPackage.
37. The following statement selects an ISO 8601timestamp value using the SQLite strftime function: SELECT (strftime('%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%fZ','now')).
38. A GeoPackage is not required to contain a gpkg_data_columns table. The gpkg_data_columns table in a GeoPackage MAY be empty.
39. GeoPackages MAY contain MIME types other than the raster image types specified in clauses 2.2.4, 2.2.5, and 3.2.2 as feature attributes, but they are not required to do so.
40. We acknowledge that this approach will not support certain applications that require a high degree of precision and/or accuracy (e.g., targeting).
41. This is a REAL to support extensions that use non-integer data.
42. This is a REAL to support extensions that use non-integer data.
43. These two values are designed to be jointly unique so that they refer to a single row in a single table.
44. These two values are designed to be jointly unique so that they refer to a single row in a single table.
45. This is a REAL to support extensions that use non-integer data.
46. This is a REAL to support extensions that use non-integer data.
47. Ideally the vertical datum for each pyramid of elevation will be specified. However, it is impractical to mandate this for a number of reasons, including the difficulty in testing whether a specific SRS has a valid vertical datum.